108 (quantity) – Wikipedia

January 29, 2021 0 Comments

Pure quantity

Cardinal 100 eight
Ordinal 108th
(100 eighth)
Factorization 22 × 33
Divisors 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36, 54, 108
Greek numeral ΡΗ´
Roman numeral CVIII
Binary 11011002
Ternary 110003
Octal 1548
Duodecimal 9012
Hexadecimal 6C16

108 (100 [and] eight) is the pure quantity following 107 and previous 109.

In arithmetic[edit]

108 is:

  • an ample quantity.
  • a semiperfect quantity.
  • a tetranacci quantity.[1]
  • the hyperfactorial of three since it’s of the shape
  • divisible by the worth of its φ operate, which is 36.
  • divisible by the full variety of its divisors (12), therefore it’s a refactorable quantity.
  • the angle in levels of the inside angles of a daily pentagon in Euclidean house.
  • palindromic in bases 11 (9911), 17 (6617), 26 (4426), 35 (3335) and 53 (2253)
  • a Harshad quantity in bases 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 16
  • a self quantity.[2]
  • an Achilles quantity as a result of is a strong quantity however not an ideal energy.
  • 9 dozen

There are 108 free polyominoes of order 7.

The equation

2sin(1082)=ϕ{displaystyle 2sin left({frac {108^{circ }}{2}}proper)=phi }

leads to the golden ratio.

This might be restated as saying that the “chord” of 108 levels is

ϕ{displaystyle phi }

, the golden ratio.

Faith and the humanities[edit]

The quantity 108 is taken into account sacred by the Dharmic Religions, reminiscent of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

Hinduism[edit]

In Hindu custom, the Mukhya Shivaganas (attendants of Shiva) are 108 in quantity and therefore Shaiva religions, notably Lingayats, use malas of 108 beads for prayer and meditation.

Equally, in Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Lord Krishna in Brindavan had 108 followers referred to as gopis. Recital of their names, typically accompanied by the counting of a 108-beaded mala, is commonly achieved throughout non secular ceremonies.

The Sri Vaishnavite Custom has 108 Divya Desams (temples of Vishnu) which can be revered by the 12 Alvars within the Divya Prabandha, a set of 4,000 Tamil verses. There are additionally 108 pithas (sacred locations).[citation needed]

Jainism[edit]

In Jainism, the full variety of methods of Karma inflow (Aasrav). 4 Kashays (anger, pleasure, conceit, greed) x 3 karanas (thoughts, speech, bodily motion) x 3 phases of planning (planning, procurement, graduation) x 3 methods of execution (personal motion, getting it achieved, supporting or approval of motion).[citation needed]

Buddhism[edit]

In Buddhism, in keeping with Bhante Gunaratana[3] this quantity is reached by multiplying the senses odor, contact, style, listening to, sight, and consciousness by whether or not they’re painful, nice or impartial, after which once more by whether or not these are internally generated or externally occurring, and but once more by previous, current and future, lastly we get 108 emotions. 6 × 3 × 2 × 3 = 108.

Tibetan Buddhist malas or rosaries (Tib. ཕྲེང་བ Wyl. phreng ba, “Trengwa”) are normally 108 beads;[4] typically 111 together with the guru bead(s), reflecting the phrases of the Buddha known as in Tibetan the Kangyur (Wylie: Bka’-‘gyur) in 108 volumes.
Zen clergymen put on juzu (a hoop of prayer beads) round their wrists, which consists of 108 beads.[5]

Japa mala, or japa beads, constituted of tulasi wooden, consisting of 108 beads plus the top bead.

The Lankavatara Sutra has a bit the place the Bodhisattva Mahamati asks Buddha 108 questions[6] and one other part the place Buddha lists 108 statements of negation within the type of “An announcement regarding X just isn’t an announcement regarding X.”[7] In a footnote, D.T. Suzuki explains that the Sanskrit phrase translated as “assertion” is pada which may additionally imply “foot-step” or “a place.” This confusion over the phrase “pada” explains why some have mistakenly held that the reference to 108 statements within the Lankavatara check with the 108 steps that many temples have.[8]

In Japan, on the finish of the 12 months, a bell is chimed 108 occasions in Buddhist temples to complete the outdated 12 months and welcome the brand new one. Every ring represents one in every of 108 earthly temptations (Bonnō) an individual should overcome to attain nirvana.

Different references[edit]

Within the neo-Gnostic teachings of Samael Aun Weor, a person has 108 possibilities (lifetimes) to get rid of his egos and transcend the fabric world earlier than “devolving” and having the egos forcefully eliminated within the infradimensions.[9]

Martial arts[edit]

Many East Asian martial arts hint their roots again to Buddhism, particularly, to the Buddhist Shaolin Temple. Due to their ties to Buddhism, 108 has develop into an vital symbolic quantity in a lot of martial arts kinds.

  • In keeping with Marma Adi and Ayurveda, there are 108 stress factors within the physique, the place consciousness and flesh intersect to present life to the dwelling being.[10]
  • The Chinese language faculty of martial arts agrees with the South Indian faculty of martial arts on the precept of 108 stress factors.[11][12]
  • 108 quantity figures prominently within the symbolism related to karate, notably the Gōjū-ryū self-discipline. The last word Gōjū-ryū kata, Suparinpei, actually interprets to 108. Suparinpei is the Chinese language pronunciation of the quantity 108, whereas gojūshi of Gojūshiho is the Japanese pronunciation of the quantity 54. The opposite Gōjū-ryū kata, Sanseru (which means “36”) and Seipai (“18”) are components of the quantity 108.[5]
  • The 108 strikes of the Yang Taijiquan lengthy type and 108 strikes within the Wing Chun wood dummy type, taught by Ip Man, are famous on this regard.[8]
  • The Eagle Claw Kung Fu model has a type referred to as the 108 Locking Hand Strategies.[13] This kind is taken into account the essence of the model, consisting of an encyclopedia of Chin Na strategies, and is claimed to be handed down from the founder Basic Yue Fei.[13]
  • Paek Pal Ki Hyung, the seventh type taught within the artwork of Kuk Sool Received, interprets actually to “108 method” type. It is usually steadily known as the “get rid of 108 torments” type. Every movement corresponds with one of many 108 Buddhist torments or defilements.
  • Within the Cambodian martial artwork of Bokator, there are 108 kbach in gates 1 by 8 of the hand at hand fight strategies.
  • There 108 protection combos which can be thought-about canon in Shaolin Kempo Karate.[14]

In literature[edit]

In science[edit]

  • 108 is the atomic variety of hassium.
  • 108 levels Fahrenheit is the inner temperature at which the human physique’s important organs start to fail from overheating.
  • The space of Earth from the Solar is about 108 occasions the diameter of the Solar (really nearer to 107.51, as per definition of the AU). Precise ratio varies between 105.7 (Perihelion) and 109.3 (Aphelion).
  • The space between the Earth and the Moon can also be about 108 occasions the diameter of the Moon.

In know-how[edit]

In sports activities[edit]

  • 108 is the quantity that the Belgian bike owner Wouter Weylandt wore when he crashed fatally within the Giro d’Italia on Might 9, 2011. As a tribute, many supporters held replicas of his race quantity by the facet of the highway the following day. The group of the Giro d’Italia determined to not situation race quantity 108 in future editions, to commemorate him.
  • An official Main League Baseball baseball has 108 stitches.[15]
  • In 2016 the Chicago Cubs (MLB) gained the World Sequence for the primary time in 108 years, ending the longest championship drought in North American skilled sports activities. The Cubs’ win got here within the tenth inning with 8 runs (108).

In card video games[edit]

  • There are 108 playing cards in a deck of UNO playing cards.
  • The normal card recreation Canasta is performed with 108 playing cards.

In different fields[edit]

See additionally[edit]

  1. ^ “Sloane’s A000078 : Tetranacci numbers”. The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Basis. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
  2. ^ “Sloane’s A003052 : Self numbers or Colombian numbers”. The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Basis. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
  3. ^ Bhante Gunaratana, 4 Foundations of Mindfulness in Plain English 2012, Knowledge Publications web page 86
  4. ^ Chapter 5 of ‘Producing the Deity’ ISBN 1-55939-055-7
  5. ^ a b “Hyaku Hachi No Bonno: The Affect of The 108 Defilements and Different Buddhist Ideas on Karate Thought and Apply By Charles C. Goodin. The article has appeared in Problem #7, Winter 1996-97 of Furyu: The Budo Journal”. Archived from the unique on 2007-06-01. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
  6. ^ The Lankavatara Sutra translated by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Chapter Two, Part II,[1]
  7. ^ The Lankavatara Sutra translated by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Chapter Two, Part III,[2]
  8. ^ a b “108 STEPS: The Sino-Indian Connection within the Martial Arts by Joyotpaul Chaudhuri…” (PDF). Archived from the unique (PDF) on 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
  9. ^ Samael Aun Weor (2005) [1983]. The Pistis Sophia Unveiled. Glorian Publishing. pp. 211–214. ISBN 0-9745916-8-8.
  10. ^ A Western Journalist on India: The Ferengi’s Columns By François Gautier. pg 158. ISBN 81-241-0795-5
  11. ^ Subramaniam Phd., P., (common editors) Dr. Shu Hikosaka, Asst. Prof. Norinaga Shimizu, & Dr. G. John Samuel, (translator) Dr. M. Radhika (1994). Varma Cuttiram வர்ம சுத்திரம்: A Tamil Textual content on Martial Artwork from Palm-Leaf Manuscript. Madras: Institute of Asian Research. pp. 90 & 91.
  12. ^ Reid Phd., Howard, Michael Croucher (1991). The Method of the Warrior: The Paradox of the Martial Arts. New York: Outlook Press. pp. 58–85. ISBN 0-87951-433-7.
  13. ^ a b Leung, Shum and Jeanne Chin. The Secrets and techniques of Eagle Claw Kung Fu: Ying Jow Pai. Tuttle martial arts. Boston: Tuttle Pub, 2001, p. 15
  14. ^ “The Mixtures”. kempoinfo.com. 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2020-10-31.
  15. ^ Official Main League Baseball by Rawlings

References[edit]

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]


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