Bengali dialects – Wikipedia

Bengali dialects - Wikipedia
January 11, 2021 0 Comments

Dialects of the Bengali language

The dialects of the Bengali language are a part of the Jap Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language household broadly spoken within the Bengal area of South Asia. Though the spoken dialects of Bengali are mutually intelligible with neighbouring dialects.

Bengali dialects may be thus categorised alongside no less than two dimensions: spoken vs. literary variations, and status vs. regional variations.

Classifications[edit]

Suniti Kumar Chatterji and Sukumar Sen categorised Bengali Dialects in 6 lessons by their phonology & pronunciation.[3][2] They’re:

1. Bangali dialect: Bangali dialect is essentially the most broadly spoken dialect of Bengali language. It’s spoken throughout the Khulna, Barisal, Dhaka, Mymensingh and Comilla Divisions of Bangladesh and the State of Tripura in India.

2. Rarhi dialect: Rarhi dialect is spoken throughout a lot of Southern West Bengal, India. It’s spoken by nearly 20 p.c of Bengali folks. The areas the place it’s spoken embody the entire of Presidency division (together with town of Kolkata and the Nadia district), the Southern half of Burdwan division and the district of Murshidabad.

3. Varendri dialect: This selection is spoken in Malda division of West Bengal, India and Rajshahi division of Bangladesh (beforehand a part of Varendra or Barind division). Additionally it is spoken in some adjoining villages in Bihar bordering Malda, West Bengal.

4. Rangpuri dialect: This dialect is spoken in Rangpur Division of Bangladesh and Jalpaiguri division of West Bengal, India and its close by Bengali talking areas within the bordering areas of Assam and Bihar.

5. Manbhumi dialect: Manbhumi is spoken in westernmost Bengali talking areas which incorporates the entire of Medinipur division and the northern half of Burdwan division in West Bengal and the Bengali talking areas of Santhal Pargana division and Kolhan division in Jharkhand state.

6. Sundarbani dialect: Some linguists have additionally talked about this.[4] Dialect of the Sundarbans area within the Satkhira District of Bangladesh and the North & South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal do not share some widespread options with the neighboring Bangali & Rarhi dialects. So this dialect is assessed as a singular dialect.

Spoken and literary variants[edit]

Greater than different Indic languages, Bengali displays robust diglossia between the formal, written language and the vernacular, spoken language. Two kinds of writing, involving considerably completely different vocabularies and syntax, have emerged :[5][6]

  1. Shadhubhasha (সাধুভাষা) is the written language with longer verb inflections and a extra Sanskrit-derived (তৎসম tôtshôm) vocabulary (সাধু shadhu = ‘chaste’ or ‘sage’; ভাষা bhasha = ‘language’). Songs resembling India’s nationwide anthem Jana Gana Mana (by Rabindranath Tagore) and nationwide tune Vande Mātaram (by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay) have been composed in Shadhubhasha, however its use is on the wane in fashionable writing.
  2. Choltibhasha (চলতিভাষা ) or Cholitobhasha (চলিতভাষা), a written Bengali model that displays a extra colloquial idiom, is more and more the usual for written Bengali (চলিত cholito = ‘present’ or ‘operating’). This manner got here into vogue in direction of the flip of the nineteenth century, in an orthography promoted within the writings of Peary Chand Mitra (Alaler ghare dulal, 1857),[7] Pramatha Chowdhury (Sabujpatra, 1914) and within the later writings of Rabindranath Tagore. It’s modelled on the dialect spoken within the districts bordering the decrease reaches of the Hooghly River, notably the Shantipur area in Nadia district, West Bengal. This type of Bengali is usually referred to as the “Nadia customary”.[8]

Spoken Bengali displays way more variation than written Bengali. Formal spoken Bengali, together with what’s heard in information stories, speeches, bulletins, and lectures, is modelled on Choltibhasha. This type of spoken Bengali stands alongside different spoken dialects, or Ancholik Bangla (আঞ্চলিক বাংলা) (i.e. ‘regional Bengali’). Nearly all of Bengalis are in a position to talk in a couple of dialect – usually, audio system are fluent in Choltibhasha, a number of Ancholik dialect, and a number of types of Gramyo Bangla (গ্রাম্য বাংলা) (i.e. ‘rural Bengali’), dialects particular to a village or city.

To a non-Bengali, these dialects might sound or look vastly completely different, however the variations are principally in phonology and vocabulary, and never a lot a grammatical one, one exception is the addition of grammatical gender in some jap dialects. Many dialects share options with the so-called Shadhu Bhasha or “pure language”, which was the written customary till the nineteenth century. Comparability of Bengali dialects offers us an thought about archaic types of the language as nicely.

Throughout standardisation of Bengali within the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the cultural elite have been principally from the areas of Kolkata, Hooghly, Howrah, 24 Parganas and Nadia. What’s accepted as the usual kind in the present day in each West Bengal and Bangladesh relies on the West-Central dialect. Whereas the language has been standardised in the present day by two centuries of training and media, variation is widespread, with many audio system accustomed to or fluent in each their socio-geographical selection in addition to the usual dialect used within the media.

Regional dialect variations[edit]

Dialectal variations in Bengali manifest themselves in three kinds: standardised dialect vs. regional dialect, literary language vs. colloquial language and lexical (vocabulary) variations. The identify of the dialects usually originates from the district the place the language is spoken.

Whereas the usual type of the language doesn’t present a lot variation throughout the Bengali-speaking areas of South Asia, regional variation in spoken Bengali constitutes a dialect continuum. Largely speech varies throughout distances of just some miles and takes distinct kinds among the many non secular communities. Bengali Hindus have a tendency to talk in Sanskritised Bengali (a remnant of the Sadhu bhasha), Bengali Muslims comparatively use extra Perso-Arabic vocabulary and Bengali Christians converse in Christian Bengali when participating in their very own circles. Other than the current dialects, there are a couple of extra which have disappeared. For instance, Sātagāiyã’ (that is the identify utilized in East Bengal for the dialect of South-western Rarh area). The current dialects of Bengali are listed under with an instance sentence which means:

English translation: “A person had two sons.” (M=male indicated i.e. A person had two sons, P= particular person indicated, with out gender, i.e. An individual had two sons)

West Central dialects[edit]

These dialects are principally spoken in and across the Bhagirathi River basin, in West Central Bengal. The usual type of the colloquial language (Choltibhasha) has developed out of the Nadia dialect.

Nadia/Commonplace Bengali language: æk jon loker duţi chhele chhilo. (M)
Kolkata: æk jon loker duţo chhele chhilo. (M)
Kolkata (Girls’s dialect): æk joner dui chhele chhelo. (P)
Howrah: æk loker duţi chhele chhilo. (M)
Howrah (Girls’s dialect): æk loker duţi chhele chhilo. (M)
Ghatal: æk loker duiţi putro chhilo. (M)
Tamluk: æk bektir duiţi puttro chhilo. (P)
Katwa: kono loker duţi chhele chhilo. (M)

Jap Dialects[edit]

Manikganj: æk zoner duiđi saoal asilo. (য়্যাক জনের দুইডী ছাওয়াল আছিলো) (P)
Mymensingh: æk zôner dui put asil. (এক জনের দুই পুৎ আছিল) (P)
Dhaka/Bikrampuri dialect/Pure Bangali dialect: æk jôner duiđa pola asilo. (P)
Comilla: æk bæđar dui fut asil. (M)
Noakhali: (Sandwip): ek shôkser dui beţa asilo.(P)
Noakhali (Feni) (Chhagalnaiya): æk zôner dui hola asil. (P)
Noakhali (Feni): egga mainsher duga hut/hola asilo. (P)
Noakhali (Hatia): ækzôn mainsher duga hola asil. (P)
Noakhali (Lakshmipur) (Ramganj): ekzôner dui hut asil. (P)
Chittagong: ægua mainsher dua fua asil. (P)
Sylhet: kono manushôr dui fua asil. (P)
Cachar) ækzôn manushór dugua fua asil (M)

South Bengal dialects[edit]

Chuadanga : æk jon lokir duiţo seile silo. (M)
Khulna: æk zon manshir dui soal silo. (P)
Bagerhat: æk zon manshir dui saoal silo. (P)
Jessore: æk zoner duţo sol silo. (P)
Barisal (Bakerganj): æk zon mansher dugga pola asilo. (P)
Faridpur: kero mansher dugga pola silo. (P)
Satkhira: æk loker duđi sabal selo.
Kushtia: æk mansher duđi seile silo.

North Bengal dialects[edit]

This dialect is especially spoken within the districts of North Bengal. These are the one dialects in Bangladesh that pronounce the letters চ, ছ, জ, and ঝ as affricates [tʃ], [tʃʰ], [dʒ], and [dʒʱ], respectively, and protect the breathy-voiced stops in all components of the phrase, very like Western dialects (together with Commonplace Bengali). The dialects of Rangpur and Pabna would not have contrastive nasalised vowels.

Dinajpur: æk jôn manusher dui chhaoa chhilô (P)
Pabna (Girls’s dialect): kono mansher dui chhaoal chhilô. (P)
Bogra: æk jhôner dui bæţa chhoil chhilô. (P)
Malda: æk jhon manuser duţa bæţa achhlô. (P)
Malda (Koch Blended): æk jhona manser duţa bæţa achhlô. (P)
Rangpur: æk zon mansher duikna bêţa asil. (P)
Rajshahi: æk loker duida chhilo. (P)
Joypurhat: æta mansher duta bæta acholo
East Purnia (Siripuria): æk jhonar dui chhua chhil. (P)

Rajbanshi dialects[edit]

Goalpara: æk zônkar dui bæţa asil. (P)
Rangpur: ækzôn mansher duikna bæţa asin. (P)
Jalpaiguri: æk jhônkar dui jhon bæţa achhil. (P)
Cooch Behar: æk jôna mansir dui kona bæţa achhil. (P)
Darjeeling (Terai): æk jhônkar duiţa bæţa chhilo. (P)

Western Border dialects[edit]

This dialect is spoken within the space which is called Manbhum.

Manbhumi: æk loker duţa beţa chhilô. (M)
East Medinipur: gote loker duiţa toka thilo. (M)
Dhalbhum/East Singhbhum: æk loker duţa chha chhilo. (M)
Pashchim Bardhaman district: kono loker duiţi chhele chhilo. (M)
Ranchi: æk loker du beţa rahe. (M)
Midnapore: æk lokkar duţţa po thailô. (M)

The latter two, together with Kharia Thar and Mal Paharia, are intently associated to Western Bengali dialects, however are usually categorised as separate languages. Equally, Rajbangsi and Hajong are thought of separate languages, though they’re similar to North Bengali dialects. There are various extra minor dialects as nicely, together with these spoken within the bordering districts of Purnea and Singhbhum and among the many tribals of jap Bangladesh just like the Hajong and the Chakma.

Different dialects and intently associated languages[edit]

This class is for dialects, principally restricted to sure communities as an alternative of a area, in addition to intently associated languages. Dobhashi was a extremely Persianised dialect originating through the Bengal Sultanate interval. The sadhu bhasha was a historic Sanskritised register of Bengali and Christian Bengali was a Europeanised dialect; each of which originated through the colonial interval. Examples of closely Sanskritised Bengali embody the Jana Gana Mana.

Dobhashi: “æk adomer dui aolad chhilô.” (এক আদমের দুই আওলাদ ছিল।) (M)
Christian Bengali: “æk homor dui putrô chhilô.” (এক হোমোর দুই পুত্র ছিল।) (P)
Sadhu bhasha: “kono æk bektir duṭi putrô chhilô” (কোন এক ব্যক্তির দু’টি পুত্র ছিল।) (P)
Closely Sanskritised Bengali: “æka byaktira putradvaya chhila” (এক ব্যক্তির পুত্রদ্বয় ছিল।) (P)
Assamese: “ezôn manuhôr duzon putek asil” (এজন মানুহৰ দুজন পুতেক আছিল) (P)
Hajong: “ekzôn manôlôg duida pôla thakibar” (একজন মানলগ দুইদা পলা থাকিবার) (P)
Chakma: ek jônôtun diba pwa el.
Kharia Thar: æhôk nôker duiţa chhaoga rôhina. (M)
Mal Paharia Language: æk jhỗṇỗr duiţô beţa achhlæk. (M)

Phonological variations[edit]

There are marked dialectal variations between the speech of Bengalis residing on the পশ্চিম Poshchim (western) facet and পূর্ব Purbo (jap) facet of the Padma River.

Bengali dialects embody Jap and Southeastern Bengali dialects: The Jap dialects function the first colloquial language of the Dhaka district. In distinction to Western dialects the place ট /ʈ/ and ড /ɖ/ are voiceless and voiced retroflex stops respectively, most Jap and Southeastern dialects pronounce them as apical alveolar /t̠/ and /d̠/, particularly in much less formal speech. These dialects additionally lack contrastive nasalised vowels or a distinction in র /r~ɾ/, ড়/ঢ় /ɽ/, announcing them principally as /ɹ/, though some audio system might realise র /r~ɾ/ when occurring earlier than a consonant or prosodic break. That is additionally true of the Sylheti dialect, which has lots in widespread with the Kamrupi dialect of Assam specifically, and is usually thought of a separate language. The Jap dialects prolong into Southeastern dialects, which embody components of Chittagong. The Chittagonian dialect has Tibeto-Burman influences.

Fricatives[edit]

Within the dialects prevalent in a lot of jap Bangladesh (Barisal, Chittagong, and Dhaka), lots of the stops and affricates heard in Kolkata Bengali are pronounced as fricatives.

Poshchim Bengali (Western Bengali) Palato-alveolar or alveolo-palatal affricates চ [tɕɔ~tʃɔ], ছ [tɕʰɔ~tʃʰɔ], জ [dʑɔ~dʒɔ], and ঝ [dʑɔʱ~dʒɔʱ] correspond to Purbo Bengali (Jap Bengali) চʻ [ts]~[tɕ], ছ় [s]~[tsʰ], জʻ [dz]~[z], and ঝ় [z]. An identical pronunciation can be present in Assamese, a associated language throughout the border in India.

The aspirated velar cease [kʰ], the voiceless aspirated labial cease [pʰ] and the voiced aspirated labial cease [bʰ] of Poshcim Bengali correspond to খ় [x~ʜ], ফ় [f~ɸ] and [β~v] in lots of dialects of Purbo Bengali.

Many Purbo Bengali dialects share phonological options with Assamese, together with the debuccalisation of শ [ʃ] to হ [h] or খ় [x].

Tibeto-Burman affect[edit]

The affect of Tibeto-Burman languages on the phonology of Purbo Bengali (Bangladesh) is seen by the shortage of nasalised vowels, an alveolar articulation for the Retroflex stops ট [ʈ], ঠ [ʈʰ], ড [ɖ], and ঢ [ɖʱ], resembling the equal phonemes in languages resembling Thai and Lao and the shortage of distinction between র [ɹ] and ড়/ঢ় [ɽ]. In contrast to most languages of the area, some Purbo Bengali dialects don’t embody the breathy voiced stops ঘ [ɡʱ], ঝ [dʑʱ], ঢ [ɖʱ], ধ [d̪ʱ], and ভ [bʱ]. Some variants of Bengali, notably Chittagonian and Chakma Bengali, have contrastive tone; variations within the pitch of the speaker’s voice can distinguish phrases. In dialects resembling Hajong of northern Bangladesh, there’s a distinction between and , the primary corresponding precisely to its customary counterpart however the latter comparable to the Japanese [ü͍] sound About this soundhear . There may be additionally a distinction between and in lots of northern Bangladeshi dialects. representing the [ɪ] sound whereas represents an [i].

Comparability Desk[edit]

Different Jap Indo-Aryan languages[edit]

English Assamese Odia Sambalpuri Rohingya
will eat (first particular person) kham khaibi khaimi khai-yum
Taka tôka tônka tanka tia
Dhaka Dhaka Dhaka Dhaka Daha

See additionally[edit]

  1. ^ Praci Bhasavijnan: Indian Journal of Linguistics. Bhasa Vidya Parishad. 2001.
  2. ^ a b বাংলা ভাষা ও উপভাষা, সুকুমার সেন, আনন্দ পাবলিশার্স[full citation needed]
  3. ^ “Praci Bhasavijnan: Indian Journal of Linguistics”. Indian Journal of Linguistics. Bhasa Vidya Parishad. 20: 79. 2001. NB Barendra refers to Varendri
  4. ^ সাতক্ষীরা জেলা. Satkhira District (in Bengali).
  5. ^ Huq, Mohammad Daniul (2012). “Chalita Bhasa”. In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: Nationwide Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  6. ^ Huq, Mohammad Daniul (2012). “Sadhu Bhasa”. In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: Nationwide Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  7. ^ Huq, Mohammad Daniul (2012). “Alaler Gharer Dulal”. In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: Nationwide Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  8. ^ Morshed, Abul Kalam Manjoor (2012). “Dialect”. In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: Nationwide Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.

References[edit]

  • আহসান, সৈয়দ আলী (2000), বাংলা একাডেমী বাংলাদেশের আঞ্চলিক ভাষার অভিধান, Bangla Academy, Dhaka, ISBN 984-07-4038-5.
  • Haldar, Gopal (2000), Languages of India, Nationwide Ebook Belief, India, ISBN 81-237-2936-7.


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