Dialysis | Belly Key

Dialysis | Abdominal Key
October 20, 2020 0 Comments

Fig. 18.1

Diffusion is pushed by the focus gradient over the membrane

Fig. 18.2

Ultrafiltration pushed by the osmotic agent over the membrane

Lactate dialysates with completely different concentrations of glucose, thereby with completely different osmotic stress, are utilized in medical apply. Composition of generally used glucose lactate dialysates is proven in Desk 18.1.

Desk 18.1

Compositions of generally used glucose lactate dialysate


Glucose (C6H12O6·H2O) (g)

Osmotic stress (mOsmol/L)


Ion focus






1.5% glucose lactate dialysate



5.2 (4.5–6.5)






2.5% glucose lactate dialysate



4.25% glucose lactate dialysate



18.3 Catheter Design and Insertion Strategies

A number of several types of catheters and catheter insertion methods are utilized in PD. The benefits and downsides of various methods for catheter insertion are summarized in Desk 18.2.

Desk 18.2

Benefits and downsides of various catheter insertion methods




Percutaneous (bedside)

• May be carried out at bedside, permitting speedy initiation of dialysis

• Threat of bowel or bladder harm

• Doctor or nurse will be educated to carry out the process

• Not appropriate for sufferers with earlier midline surgical scars or threat of adhesions

Open surgical

• Out there in most facilities

• Requires surgical scheduling, with accessible working theater time at a premium

• Decrease value of consumables than that with laparoscopy



• Decrease incidence of leakage

• Requires expert personnel

• Skill to carry out adjunctive procedures

• Excessive value of consumables

• Skill to put the catheter within the pelvis beneath imaginative and prescient


Versatile catheters—Because the gold customary for PD entry, Tenckhoff catheter is probably the most extensively utilized in sufferers with power dialysis.

Inflexible catheters—By utilizing a trocar machine, the catheter will be inserted on to the iliac fossae. Dialysis utilizing these catheters is much less environment friendly though they’re straightforward to be inserted. Additionally, this catheter design tends to generate some problems, similar to bladder or bowel perforation, bleeding, leakage of dialysate, and obstruction owing to the small facet holes and lumen [4].

18.4 Indications and Contraindications for PD

18.4.1 Indications

PD is really useful because the first-line therapy modality of renal substitute theraphy for the next sufferers with CKD stage 5: (1) youngsters aged ≥2 years, (2) people with residual renal perform, and (3) adults with no vital associated comorbidities.

18.4.2 Contraindications

Contraindications for PD are summarized in Desk 18.3.

Desk 18.3

Contraindications for peritoneal dialysis



• Lack of peritoneal perform

• Current stomach aortic graft

• Producing insufficient clearance

• Ventriculoperitoneal shunt

• Adhesions blocking the dialysate circulation

• Intolerance to intra-abdominal fluid loading

• Surgically uncorrectable stomach hernia

• Giant muscle mass

• Belly wall stoma

• Morbid weight problems

• Diaphragmatic fluid leakage

• Extreme malnutrition

• Lack of ability to carry out exchanges within the absence of appropriate assistant

• Pores and skin an infection

• Bowel illness

18.5 PD Modalities

A number of main PD modalities exist, which embrace the next:

  1. 1.

    Steady ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)—Sufferers bear PD all through the day.


  2. 2.

    Steady biking peritoneal dialysis (CCPD)—Sufferers bear PD all through the day, which is assisted by automated machines in a single day.


  3. 3.

    Intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD)—Sufferers bear intermittent PD.


  4. 4.

    Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD)—Sufferers bear PD assisted by automated machines.


Because the invention of Tenckhoff catheter in 1968 and look of wearable/moveable equilibrium dialysis method in 1976, CAPD has been used as a possible modality of renal substitute remedy within the long-term therapy of sufferers with end-stage renal illness (ESRD). Twin luggage are utilized in CAPD sufferers to cut back the variety of connections and disconnections required to be established on a regular basis [5].

CCPD is appropriate for sufferers requiring assist (similar to youngsters, blind people, and the aged) or daytime staff. Sufferers can perform their very own actions and work with the peritoneal dialysate within the stomach cavity all through the day and have good sleep assisted by automated machines in a single day.

IPD is utilized to acute or power renal failure for the preliminary 3–10 days of CAPD. IPD removes extra water, is related to fewer problems of peritonitis, and might discharge extra nitrogen.

The benefit of APD is that it wants much less intensive nursing care, however the drawback is that it will increase the monetary burden. Throughout APD, a wide range of extremely environment friendly therapy preparations will be supplied by means of excessive flows of dialysate, individualized intraperitoneal fluid volumes, and brief residence instances.

Total, there exists no proof on vital variations in essential outcomes amongst modalities, similar to high quality of life, mortality, antagonistic occasions, dietary standing, and method survival for sufferers handled with CAPD and APD. Subsequently, adults and kids can go for CAPD, CCPD, or APD. Nevertheless, APD has been really useful as the popular choice for infants and kids on a liquid eating regimen primarily based on medical expertise. The Nationwide Kidney Basis–Dialysis Outcomes High quality Initiative (NKF–DOQI) tips really useful Kt/V goal of two.0 for CAPD and a pair of.1 for CCPD each week in 1997. As a result of greater day by day dialysis resolution volumes will be simpler and extra handy delivered through the use of automated machines, cycler utilization is elevated with a view to obtain these excessive targets. Nonetheless, in current NKF–DOQI tips, the Kt/V targets for CAPD have been mildly decreased to 1.7. Using APD has considerably elevated since its reintroduction, in all probability as a result of its use promotes constructive modifications within the life-style of dialysis sufferers [2].

18.6 Evaluation

18.6.1 Peritoneal Equilibration Take a look at (PET)

Probably the most generally used methodology for evaluating the transport attribute of peritoneal membrane is PET. As a easy medical methodology, PET is extensively used to evaluate the rapidity of urea, creatinine, and different solutes diffusion throughout the peritoneal membrane. It has grow to be a routine methodology for the analysis of clinically vital alterations in peritoneal transport traits. On this take a look at, the dialysate to plasma solute focus (D/P) ratio for specific solutes is measured throughout an change with standard PD fluid [5].

The usual process for PET is listed beneath [8]:

  1. 1.

    After complete drainage of the prior dwell (if CAPD, sometimes 8 h), carry out this take a look at within the morning.

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