Fistula – Wikipedia

Fistula - Wikipedia
March 23, 2021 0 Comments

An irregular connection between two epithelialized surfaces, usually organs

A fistula (plural: fistulas or fistulae ; from Latin fistula, “tube, pipe”) is an irregular connection between two hole areas (technically, two epithelialized surfaces), equivalent to blood vessels, intestines, or different hole organs.[2][3][4]

Sorts of fistula may be described by their location. Anal fistulas join between the anal canal and the perianal pores and skin. Anovaginal or rectovaginal fistulas happen when a gap develops between the anus or rectum and the vagina. Colovaginal fistulas happen between the colon and the vagina. Urinary tract fistulas are irregular openings throughout the urinary tract or an irregular connection between the urinary tract and one other organ equivalent to between the bladder and the uterus in a vesicouterine fistula, between the bladder and the vagina in a vesicovaginal fistula, and between the urethra and the vagina in urethrovaginal fistula. When occurring between two components of the gut, it is named an enteroenteral fistula, between the small gut and the pores and skin as an enterocutaneous fistula, and between the small gut and the colon as a colocutaneous fistula.[3]

Fistulas may result from an an infection or irritation, harm or surgical procedure.[5] Fistulas are typically purposefully surgically created as a part of a therapy, for instance arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis.[6]

Therapy for fistula varies relying on the trigger and extent of the fistula, however usually includes surgical intervention mixed with antibiotic remedy. In some circumstances the fistula is briefly lined utilizing a fibrin glue or plug. Catheters could also be required to empty a fistula.[3]

Globally, yearly between 50,000 to 100,000 ladies are affected by fistula referring to childbirth.[7]

In botany, the time period is commonest in its adjectival kinds, the place it’s utilized in binomial names to discuss with species which are distinguished by hole or tubular buildings. Monarda fistulosa, for instance, has tubular flowers.[8]

The time period was first used within the 14th century.[2]

Definition[edit]

A fistula is an irregular connection between vessels or organs that don’t normally join. It may be as a consequence of a illness or trauma, or purposely surgically created.[3][5]

Classification[edit]

Varied forms of fistulas embody:

  • Blind: Just one open finish; can also be referred to as sinus tracts.[5]
  • Full: Each inner and exterior openings.[5]
  • Incomplete: An exterior pores and skin opening that doesn’t hook up with any inner organ.[5]

Though most fistulas are in types of a tube, some may have a number of branches.

Location[edit]

Sorts of fistula may be described by their location. Anal fistulas join between the epithelialized floor of the anal canal and the perianal pores and skin. Anovaginal or rectovaginal fistulas happen when a gap develops between the anus or rectum and the vagina. Colovaginal fistulas happen between the colon and the vagina. Urinary tract fistulas are irregular openings throughout the urinary tract or an irregular connection between the urinary tract and one other organ equivalent to between the bladder and the uterus in a vesicouterine fistula, between the bladder and the vagina in a vesicovaginal fistula, and between the urethra and the vagina in urethrovaginal fistula. When occurring between two components of the gut, it is named an enteroenteral fistula, between the small gut and the pores and skin as an enterocutaneous fistula, and between the small gut and the colon as a colocutaneous fistula.[3]

The next checklist is sorted by the Worldwide Statistical Classification of Ailments and Associated Well being Issues.

H: Ailments of the attention, adnexa, ear, and mastoid course of[edit]

I: Ailments of the circulatory system[edit]

J: Ailments of the respiratory system[edit]

Ok: Ailments of the digestive system[edit]

M: Ailments of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue[edit]

N: Ailments of the urogenital system[edit]

Q: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities[edit]

T: Exterior causes[edit]

  • Illness: Infections together with an anorectal abscess and inflammatory ailments together with Crohn’s illness and ulcerative colitis may end up in fistulas.[9][10] Fistulas to the anus could happen in hidradenitis suppurativa.[11] In ladies, fistulas may happen following pelvic an infection and irritation.[9]
  • Surgical and medical therapy: Problems from gallbladder surgical procedure can result in biliary fistulas.[citation needed] In addition to being congenital or ensuing from trauma, arteriovenous fistulas are created purposefully for hemodialysis.[6] Radiation remedy to the pelvis can result in vesicovaginal fistulas.[9]
  • Trauma: Extended childbirth can result in fistulas in ladies, in whom irregular connections could happen between the bladder and vagina, or the rectum and vagina.[9] An obstetric fistula develops when blood provide to the tissues of the vagina and the bladder (and/or rectum) is lower off throughout extended obstructed labor. The tissues die and a gap kinds by way of which urine and/or feces move uncontrollably. Vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistulas can also be attributable to rape, specifically gang rape, and rape with overseas objects, as evidenced by the abnormally excessive variety of ladies in battle areas who’ve suffered fistulae.[12][13] In 2003, 1000’s of girls in jap Congo introduced themselves for therapy of traumatic fistulas attributable to systematic, violent gang rape, usually additionally with sharp objects that occurred through the nation’s 5 years of battle. So many circumstances have been reported that the destruction of the vagina is taken into account a battle harm and recorded by medical doctors as against the law of fight.[14] Head trauma can result in perilymph fistulas, whereas trauma to different components of the physique could cause arteriovenous fistulas.[citation needed]

Therapy[edit]

Therapy for fistula varies relying on the trigger and extent of the fistula, however usually includes surgical intervention mixed with antibiotic remedy. In some circumstances the fistula is briefly lined, utilizing a fibrin glue or plug. Catheters could also be required to empty a fistula.[3]

Surgical procedure is commonly required to guarantee enough drainage of the fistula (in order that pus could escape with out forming an abscess). Varied surgical procedures are used, mostly fistulotomy, placement of a seton (a wire that’s handed by way of the trail of the fistula to maintain it open for draining), or an endorectal flap process (the place wholesome tissue is pulled over the inner aspect of the fistula to maintain feces or different materials from reinfecting the channel).

Administration includes treating any underlying causative situation. For instance, surgical therapy of fistulae in Crohn’s illness may be efficient, but when the Crohn’s illness itself is just not handled, the speed of recurrence of the fistula may be very excessive (effectively above 50%).

Therapeutic use[edit]

In folks with kidney failure, requiring dialysis, a cimino fistula is commonly intentionally created within the arm by way of a brief day surgical procedure with a purpose to allow simpler withdrawal of blood for hemodialysis.

As a radical therapy for portal hypertension, surgical creation of a portacaval fistula produces an anastomosis between the hepatic portal vein and the inferior vena cava throughout the omental foramen (of Winslow). This spares the portal venous system from excessive strain which may trigger esophageal varices, caput medusae, and hemorrhoids.

Epidemiology[edit]

Globally, yearly between 50,000 to 100,000 ladies are affected by fistula referring to childbirth.[7]

In botany, the time period is commonest in its adjectival kinds, the place it’s utilized in binomial names to discuss with species which are distinguished by hole or tubular buildings. Monarda fistulosa, for instance, has tubular flowers;[8]Eutrochium fistulosum has a tubular stem; Allium fistulosum has hole or tubular leaves, and Acacia seyal subsp. fistula is the subspecies with hole spines.[citation needed]

Society and tradition[edit]

The time period was first used within the 14th century.[2]

See additionally[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. OED 2nd version, 1989. (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b c d “Definition of Fistula”. www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f “What Is A Fistula? Varieties, causes and coverings defined”. Urinary incontinence schooling; Nationwide Affiliation for Continence. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  4. ^ Garefalakis, Maria; Hickey, Martha; Johnson, Neil (2016). “Gynecological Morbidity”. In Quah, Stella R.; Cockerham, William C. (eds.). Worldwide Encyclopedia of Public Well being (Second ed.). Elsevier. pp. 342–353. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-803678-5.00178-8. ISBN 978-0-12-803678-5. A fistula is an irregular connection or passageway between organs or vessels that aren’t usually linked.
  5. ^ a b c d e Rao, Jyotsna (2019). “Part II. Common Surgical procedure: Wounds, Sinuses, Fistulae”. Qrs for Bds III Yr-E Guide (Third ed.). Elsevier Well being Sciences. p. 256. ISBN 978-81-312-5535-3.
  6. ^ a b “Arteriovenous fistula – Signs and causes”. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  7. ^ a b “Obstetric fistula”. www.who.int.
  8. ^ a b Identification of Monarda fistulosa Archived 2016-03-04 on the Wayback Machine subpage of Uncover Life , 2014.
  9. ^ a b c d “Fistulas: What are Fistulas? Fistulas Signs, Therapy, Analysis – UCLA”. www.uclahealth.org. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  10. ^ Carr, S; Velasco, AL (January 2020). “Fistula In Ano”. StatPearls Publishing. PMID 32491449.
  11. ^ Seksik, Philippe; Contou, Jean-Francois; Cosnes, Anne; Cosnes, Jacques (2006). “7. Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Crohn’s Illness”. In Jemec, Gregor B. E.; Revuz, Jean; Leyden, James J. (eds.). Hidradenitis Suppurativa. Springer. p. 53. ISBN 978-3-540-33100-1.
  12. ^ “Stephanie Nolen, “Not Ladies Anymore…” Ms. Journal, Spring 2005″. Archived from the unique on 2017-01-20. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
  13. ^ UNFPA: United Nations Inhabitants Fund. Press Launch, 22 June 2006. “Extra Funding Wanted to Assist Victims of Sexual Violence”
  14. ^ Emily Wax, Washington Submit Overseas Service. Saturday, October 25, 2003; Web page A01 “A Brutal Legacy of Congo Conflict”

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]


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