Glossary of Definitions | Fresenius Kidney Care

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) | Fresenius Kidney Care
April 13, 2021 0 Comments


Stomach The a part of the physique that comprises the interior organs between the pelvis and the chest cavity.

Entry A way to get into the physique. Accesses to the bloodstream for hemodialysis are fistulas, grafts, and many others. Entry to the peritoneal cavity for peritoneal dialysis is a catheter.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) Drugs used to deal with hypertension. ACE inhibitors can even assist stop or gradual kidney harm.

Acute Quickly creating; extreme; quick length.

Acute renal failure A sudden and extreme lower in kidney operate that could be quick time period.

Albumin A protein in blood plasma that acts as a service and helps to keep up blood quantity and blood stress.

Albuminuria A situation wherein albumin is current within the urine. There are filters within the kidneys that stop massive molecules, resembling albumin, from passing via. If these filters are broken, albumin passes from the blood into the urine.

Albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) A take a look at that compares the quantity of albumin within the urine with the quantity of creatinine. It’s used to detect whether or not albuminuria is current.

Allograft An organ or tissue transplant from one individual to a different.

Alport syndrome An inherited situation that leads to kidney illness. It typically develops in childhood and is extra severe in boys than in women.

Ambulatory Capable of stroll; movable.

Analgesic-associated kidney illness A situation in which there’s a lack of kidney operate attributable to long-term use of analgesic (pain-relieving) drugs. Analgesics that mix aspirin and acetaminophen are most harmful to the kidneys.

Anemia A situation in which there’s a discount of crimson blood cells.

Antibiotic Medicine used to kill micro organism and battle an infection.

Antibodies Proteins which might be made by the immune system, the physique’s protection mechanism, to assault substances that aren’t usually a part of an individual’s physique—for instance, micro organism or toxins.

Anticoagulant Medicine that delays or stops the clotting of blood, resembling Coumadin or heparin.

Antigen A toxin or different international substance that causes an individual’s physique to create an immune response.

Antihypertensive Medicine that lowers blood stress.

Antiseptic A chemical that stops development and copy of micro organism and viruses, however doesn’t essentially destroy them as a disinfectant would.

Anuria A situation wherein an individual stops making urine.

Arterial line A tube that carries blood away from the physique into the bogus kidney.

An age-related situation wherein the arteries grow to be stiff and calcified.

Artery A blood vessel that carries blood away from the guts to different elements of the physique.

Synthetic kidney
A filtering machine that’s used to take away extra fluid and waste merchandise from the physique. Also called a “dialyzer” or a “hemodialyzer.”


Micro organism Single-cell organisms, able to fast copy. They’re current all over the place. Some are innocent, whereas others are recognized to supply infectious illnesses.

Bathtub (see “dialysate”)

Biopsy A process wherein a tiny piece of a tissue from a physique half, such because the kidney or bladder, is eliminated for examination beneath a microscope by a pathologist.

Bladder A muscular, elastic sac or membrane contained in the physique that shops the urine.

Blood chemistry The measurement of sure chemical compounds within the blood.

Blood movement charge The speed at which the affected person’s blood is pumped via the bogus kidney throughout dialysis.

Blood group
A sort of human blood. Blood teams are labeled by the ABO system (A, B, AB and O). In any of the 4 ABO teams, an individual will be RH optimistic or RH detrimental, which means that an individual will be labeled as one of many 8 attainable varieties (O+, O-, A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+ or AB-). Classifying blood kind is essential for understanding compatibility for blood transfusions and organ transplantations.

Blood stress
The stress blood exerts on the partitions of the blood vessels. That is expressed in 2 numbers, resembling 120/80. The systolic (prime) quantity is the stress when the guts is contracting and the diastolic (backside) quantity is the stress when the guts is at relaxation.

Blood pump
A pump that strikes blood from the affected person’s entry via the blood tubing and synthetic kidney and again to the affected person with out harm to the blood cells.

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
A technique to measure the mix of waste merchandise (nitrogen and urea) within the blood usually excreted by the kidneys.

Blood vessels
The tubes that take blood across the physique.

The sound produced by the blood flowing via a blood vessel, in addition to via a fistula, graft or shunt.


Cadaveric donor
Somebody who has died and whose tissues or organs, resembling kidneys, have been donated for transplantation into one other human.

A chemical that’s essential for bone development and formation, blood clotting, nerve and muscle functioning and the activation of sure enzymes.

A class of meals compounds that’s simply utilized by the physique for vitality.

Something to do with the guts.

Heart problems (CVD)
All illnesses and circumstances of the guts and blood vessels, together with coronary heart assault, coronary heart failure, stroke, blockages within the blood vessels and vascular kidney illness.

A versatile, hole tube via which fluids enter or go away the physique. For peritoneal dialysis, a catheter is positioned by a health care provider within the stomach (peritoneal cavity). For hemodialysis, a venous catheter could also be positioned within the neck, chest or leg as a short-term resolution. A fistula or a graft is the popular entry kind for hemodialysis.

Ldl cholesterol
A naturally occurring, waxy substance made by the physique. It’s a necessary constructing block of cell membranes, hormones and vitamin D. An excessive amount of ldl cholesterol within the blood could cause clogging of the arteries and may result in heart problems.

Persisting for an extended time frame or recurring usually.

Power kidney illness (CKD)
A time period used broadly to explain kidney harm or decreased kidney operate (whatever the trigger) that persists for greater than 3 months. Generally CKD results in kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain an individual alive.

Power renal (kidney) failure
Harm to the kidneys that’s often progressive in nature and can’t be reversed, lowering the filtration and waste elimination features of the kidneys.

The speed that waste merchandise within the blood are eliminated via dialysis, expressed in milliliters per minute.

The method of forming a blood clot.

The power of an answer.

Congestive coronary heart failure (CHF)
A situation wherein the physique is overloaded with fluid, inflicting the guts to pump much less successfully. Congestive coronary heart failure could end in extra fluid within the lungs.

Permitting microorganisms to contact a sterile space, making the realm unsterile and creating the potential for an infection.

Steady ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
A type of dialysis wherein dialysate drains into and out of the peritoneal cavity by gravity a number of instances a day.

Steady biking peritoneal dialysis (CCPD)
A type of dialysis that makes use of a biking machine to infuse and drain dialysate from the peritoneal cavity a number of instances in the course of the evening whereas the affected person sleeps.

Involuntary muscle contractions and leisure.

Co-insurance The proportion of insurance coverage prices you’re liable for paying when you’ve paid your deductible (i.e., your insurance coverage pays 80% and also you pay 20%).

Coordination of Advantages (COB) The willpower of which insurance coverage supplier pays first when a person is roofed by a couple of insurance coverage plan.

Co-pay/Co-payments The fastened out-of-pocket expense you’re liable for paying for appointments, drugs or providers (e.g., $15 co-pay per workplace go to). Co-pays differ from plan to plan.

Creatinine One of many many waste merchandise within the blood that’s produced by regular tissue breakdown and eliminated by the kidneys or by dialysis in sufferers with renal failure.

Cross matching
The testing of blood and tissues to verify the compatibility of a donor’s kidney and an individual in want of a kidney transplantation.

A pattern of organisms taken from a website to determine the particular organism that’s inflicting an infection.

An irregular sac containing gasoline, fluid or a semisolid materials. Cysts could type in kidneys or in different elements of the physique.

An amino acid present in blood and urine. Amino acids are constructing blocks of protein.

Cystine stone
A uncommon type of kidney stone consisting of the amino acid cystine.


Deductible The sum of money you pay out of pocket every year for medical bills earlier than your insurance coverage begins making funds on claims. Quantities range by plan and a few plans don’t require a deductible.

Diabetes A power illness brought on by issues with the manufacturing and/or motion of insulin within the physique. 

Diabetic nephropathy
The medical identify for kidney illness brought on by diabetes.

An answer consisting of water and chemical compounds (electrolytes) that passes via the bogus kidney to take away extra fluids and waste merchandise from the blood. Additionally referred to as “bathtub.”

Dialysate movement charge
The speed at which dialysate flows via the dialyzer.

Cleaning the physique of undesirable toxins, waste merchandise and extra fluids by filtering them from the blood via a semipermeable membrane.

Dialysis fluid
(see “dialysate”)

Dialysis therapy plan
A plan that’s based mostly on the person wants of an individual with finish stage renal illness (ESRD) to reestablish bodily stability.

(see “synthetic kidney”)

An essential member of a therapy crew. A dietitian might help an individual handle their kidney well being (and different issues like blood stress) via dietary modifications.

Passage of particles from an answer of excessive focus to an answer of low focus, leading to an excellent distribution of particles.

An agent that kills most microorganisms, like micro organism and viruses, it contacts.

A sort of medication that helps the physique eliminate additional fluid. Having an excessive amount of fluid within the physique can elevate blood stress.

An individual who provides a physique organ, resembling a kidney, to a different individual. For kidneys, the donor will be dwelling or deceased.

Dry weight
The burden of a dialysis affected person when extra fluid has been eliminated. Also called “preferrred weight.”

Dwell time
The size of time dialysate (dialysis resolution) stays within the peritoneal cavity throughout peritoneal dialysis.


Swelling or puffiness attributable to buildup of extra fluid within the tissues, which is most noticeable in ankles, arms and face. It happens in dialysis sufferers on account of extra fluid consumption or decreased ultrafiltration.

Finish stage renal illness (ESRD)
Whole and everlasting kidney failure. When the kidneys fail, the physique retains fluid and dangerous waste builds up. An individual with ESRD wants therapy to switch the work of the failed kidneys.

Erythropoietin (EPO)
A physique chemical (hormone) primarily made by the kidneys that causes the bone marrow to make crimson blood cells. A scarcity of this hormone could cause anemia.

Estimated glomerular filtration charge (eGFR)
A take a look at to measure how effectively the kidneys are cleansing the blood, which helps to find out the stage of kidney illness. eGFR is reported in milliliters per minute and is often estimated from the outcomes of the creatinine blood take a look at together with age and gender. 

The method of adjusting used dialysate for contemporary resolution in peritoneal dialysis.

Exit website
The world the place the needles enter or exit via the entry. Additionally, the place a peritoneal dialysis catheter or subclavian catheter exits the pores and skin.

Rationalization of Advantages (EOB)
An announcement despatched by your medical insurance supplier that explains which therapy and repair fees have been lined by insurance coverage and in addition exhibits any remaining stability. The EOB just isn’t a invoice.


A sort of entry that’s created by surgically becoming a member of an artery and a vein in order that the vein enlarges because of the movement of arterial blood. 

Fluid allowance/restriction
The quantity of fluid that’s permitted every day, which is often set by a health care provider.

Fluid overload
The purpose at which additional fluid within the physique causes edema, problem in respiratory or additional pressure on the guts.

Fluid retention
(see “edema”)


Glomerular filtration charge (GFR)
(see “estimated glomerular filtration charge”)

Irritation of the glomeruli, the kidneys’ filters.

A tiny set of blood vessels within the nephron.

A small machine that’s used to check blood sugar ranges and can be utilized at dwelling.

The principle sugar present in blood. The physique turns many meals into glucose. That is the physique’s major supply of vitality.

Glucose pill
A small, chewable pill manufactured from glucose. If an individual’s blood sugar drops too low, they’ll eat a glucose pill to deliver it again as much as a wholesome vary.

The surgical placement of a fabric between an artery and vein to create a circulatory entry for hemodialysis. Graft can even confer with a transplanted kidney.


The ratio of crimson blood cells to whole blood.

A situation wherein blood is current within the urine. Blood that’s seen within the urine known as gross hematuria. Blood that can not be seen by the bare eye and may solely be seen when examined by a microscope known as microscopic hematuria.

The elimination of extra fluids and waste merchandise by passage of blood via a synthetic kidney.

(see “synthetic kidney”)

Hemoglobin The protein portion of the crimson blood cell, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the remainder of the physique’s tissues.

A “blood thinner,” or anticoagulant, that’s given in hemodialysis to gradual clotting time to be able to stop blood from clotting within the strains or dialyzer.

Irritation of the liver brought on by virus, micro organism, poisonous brokers or remedy.

Hepatitis B floor antigen
A substance that signifies an infection with hepatitis B virus. This virus could cause severe liver harm and may complicate power kidney illness (CKD) in addition to therapy for CKD. Testing for the hepatitis B floor antigen could also be carried out on each the therapy crew and sufferers.

Hepatitis C floor antigen
A substance that signifies an infection with hepatitis C virus. This virus could cause severe liver harm and may complicate power kidney illness (CKD) in addition to therapy for CKD. Testing for the hepatitis C floor antigen could also be carried out on each the therapy crew and sufferers.

Excessive-density lipoprotein (HDL)
Additionally referred to as “good ldl cholesterol”. HDL carries ldl cholesterol to the liver the place it may be faraway from the blood. An HDL stage of greater than 40 is taken into account good. An HDL stage of greater than 60 is even higher.

A pure chemical produced in a single a part of the physique and launched into the blood to set off or regulate explicit features of the physique. The kidney releases 3 hormones: erythropoietin, renin and an energetic type of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium for bones.

An unusually great amount of oxalate within the urine, which might result in kidney stones.


Low blood stress.


Splendid weight
(see “dry weight”)

Immune system
The physique’s system for shielding itself from viruses and micro organism or any international substances.

A drug that suppresses the physique’s immune response. It’s given to transplant recipients to assist stop rejection of the transplanted kidney.

An infection
The invasion of the physique by disease-producing organisms and the response of the physique’s tissues to their presence.

Warmth, redness, swelling and ache that may be current in elements of the physique or all through the physique; irritation is often a results of an infection or irritation.

In-network/Out-of-network Some plans have a most popular community of healthcare professionals, hospitals and pharmacies. Utilizing in-network suppliers means you’ll typically pay much less for providers as a result of charges have been negotiated with the insurance coverage firm. Companies by out-of-network suppliers could also be lined at a decrease charge or by no means, which prices you extra out of pocket.

Insulin A hormone that helps an individual’s physique flip the sugar they’ve eaten into vitality. In diabetes, the physique both doesn’t make or use insulin accurately.

Interstitial nephritis Irritation of the kidney cells that aren’t a part of the fluid-collecting models, a situation that may result in acute renal failure or power kidney illness.

Being inside a vein.

Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
An X-ray of the urinary tract. A dye is injected into the physique to make the kidneys, ureters and bladder seen on the X-ray and present any blockage within the urinary tract.


One in every of two bean-shaped organs situated behind the stomach cavity, one on both sides of the spinal column. Kidneys keep the physique’s chemical stability by excreting waste merchandise and extra fluid within the type of urine.

Kidney illness
Everlasting harm to the kidneys. The commonest causes are diabetes and hypertension. If left untreated, kidney illness can result in kidney failure.

Kidney failure
When the kidneys don’t work effectively sufficient to wash the blood. Somebody with kidney failure will want dialysis or a kidney transplant to reside.

Kidney stone
A stone that develops from crystals that type in urine and construct up on the inside surfaces of the kidney, within the renal pelvis or within the ureters.

Kidney transplant
When a wholesome kidney from an individual is positioned in another person whose kidneys have failed. A kidney transplant can come from a dwelling donor or from somebody who has simply died.

1,000 grams; 1 kilogram is the same as 2.2 kilos.

Clearance x time / quantity. A measurement that signifies how effectively waste merchandise have been eliminated by dialysis therapy.


Fatty substances, together with ldl cholesterol and triglycerides which might be current in blood and physique tissues. 

The essential unit of quantity measurement within the metric system, roughly equal to a quart.

A way of breaking apart kidney stones utilizing shock waves or different means.

Dwelling donor
An individual who donates an organ whereas they’re nonetheless alive.

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
Additionally referred to as “unhealthy ldl cholesterol”. A excessive LDL stage places an individual extra in danger for kidney illness, coronary heart illness and stroke. A traditional LDL stage is mostly lower than 100. 

Lupus nephritis
Irritation of the kidneys brought on by an autoimmune illness referred to as systemic lupus erythematosus. The situation could cause hematuria and proteinuria and should progress to finish stage renal illness.


Medical diet remedy (MNT)
Using diet to assist management power circumstances like diabetes, coronary heart illness or kidney illness. MNT consists of working with a dietitian to make wholesome modifications to an individual’s weight-reduction plan.

A skinny layer of tissue or materials, often an outer layer or lining of organs or group of organs.

Membranous nephropathy (MN)
A dysfunction that hinders the kidneys’ capability to filter waste merchandise from the blood due to dangerous deposits on the glomerular membrane. Some instances of membranous nephropathy develop after an autoimmune illness or malignancy.

The bodily and chemical modifications in your physique that produce and use vitality.

Inorganic substances which might be vital for regular physique operate, however are poisonous in excessive concentrations.

(noun) An digital machine that’s used to verify, remind or warn. (verb) Watching sufferers throughout their therapies or checking the adequacy of therapies over time.


The sensation an individual experiences once they have an upset abdomen.

The surgical elimination of a kidney.

A health care provider who focuses on kidney problems.

Any illness of the kidney.

A unit of the kidney that maintains the physique’s chemical stability. There are roughly a million nephrons in every kidney.

Nephrotic syndrome
A group of signs that point out kidney harm. Signs embrace excessive ranges of protein within the urine, a scarcity of protein within the blood and excessive blood ldl cholesterol. 

Any illness of the nerves.


(see “edema”) 

Components of the physique which might be wanted to remain alive, such because the kidneys, coronary heart, lungs and liver.

Motion of fluid via a semipermeable membrane to attain equal focus on either side of the membrane.

Out-of-pocket restrict/most The utmost quantity you’ll have to pay out of pocket for lined medical bills over the course of a yr earlier than insurance coverage covers 100% of the bills.

A chemical that mixes with calcium in urine to type the commonest kind of kidney stone (calcium oxalate stone).


The bodily symptom a affected person feels attributable to arrhythmia, an irregular beating of the guts.

Parathyroid glands
Small glands situated within the neck that produce a hormone that’s vital to control calcium and phosphorus ranges within the blood.

The partial or full surgical elimination of the parathyroid glands.

PD Plus
A mixture of CCPD and CAPD principally utilized by peritoneal dialysis (PD) sufferers who want extra environment friendly dialysis.

Irritation of the pericardium, the sac-like construction surrounding the guts.

Peritoneal cavity
The area surrounding the stomach organs situated beneath the stomach muscle mass.

Peritoneal dialysis (PD)
A type of dialysis wherein the liner of the stomach, the peritoneal membrane, acts as a pure filter.

The graceful, semipermeable membrane that covers the stomach organs and contours the stomach cavity.

An an infection of the peritoneal cavity that should be handled instantly by a health care provider.

Phosphate binders
Medicines that bind with dietary phosphorus to be able to remove the phosphorus from the physique, which helps hold calcium and phosphorus ranges in stability for dialysis sufferers.

A component that’s vital for regular physique features, particularly bone formation.

Polycystic kidney illness (PKD)
A hereditary illness that includes the expansion of cysts on kidney tissue.

A component that’s wanted by the physique for regular muscle and nerve operate in addition to cell upkeep.

Major payer/Secondary payer The order of monetary accountability for payers (which means which insurer pays first) when a person is roofed by a couple of insurance coverage plan.

Teams of nitrogen-containing compounds discovered within the physique which might be important to life.

The presence of an excessive amount of protein in an individual’s urine.

A situation wherein an individual’s pores and skin is severely itchy.

The throbbing sensation felt within the arteries in time with the heartbeat.


Purple blood cell
A sort of blood cell that comprises hemoglobin and carries oxygen to the physique’s tissues.

Referring to the kidneys. For instance, a renal illness is a illness of the kidneys.

Renal cell carcinoma
A sort of kidney most cancers.

Renal cysts
Irregular fluid-filled sacs within the kidney that vary in dimension from microscopic to a lot bigger. Many easy cysts are innocent, whereas different varieties can severely harm the kidneys.

Renal weight-reduction plan
A particular weight-reduction plan for dialysis sufferers to assist them keep wholesome and really feel their finest.

operate Kidney operate.

Renal nuclear scan
A take a look at of the construction, blood movement and performance of the kidneys. Throughout a renal nuclear scan, the physician injects a mildly radioactive resolution into an individual’s arm vein and makes use of X-rays to watch the answer’s progress via their kidneys.

Renal osteodystrophy
Weak bones brought on by poorly working kidneys. Renal osteodystrophy is a typical drawback for folks on dialysis who’ve excessive phosphate ranges or inadequate vitamin D supplementation.

Renal alternative remedy
One other identify for dialysis, a therapy possibility for folks with kidney failure that includes eradicating waste and extra fluid from the physique.

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA)
A defect within the kidneys that hinders their regular excretion of acids. Failure to excrete acids can result in weak bones, kidney stones and poor development in youngsters.

Renal vein thrombosis (RVT)
A situation wherein blood clots within the vessel that carries blood away from the kidneys. This could happen in folks with nephrotic syndrome.

A hormone made by the kidneys that helps regulate the quantity of fluid within the physique and blood stress.


Semipermeable membrane
A cloth that permits fluids and small particles to movement via it however not bigger particles.

A component discovered within the physique that helps regulate the physique’s fluid content material.

Completely free from any dwelling microorganisms.

A mineral present in kidney stones that have been brought on by an an infection.

Systolic stress
The primary and highest quantity within the two-part blood stress measurement. It measures the very best stress within the arteries when the guts beats (the guts muscle contracts).


 A advantageous vibration or buzzing over an space of excessive or turbulent blood movement within the physique.

Tissue typing
Matching the blood cells of a possible transplant recipient with the blood cells of potential donors.

A waste product within the blood or any substance that’s toxic.

The alternative of a diseased organ with a wholesome one. A kidney transplant could come from a dwelling donor or from somebody who has simply died.

A sort of protein within the blood. Regular triglycerides are lower than 150. Excessive triglycerides can elevate an individual’s threat of coronary heart illness or kidney illness. 


A course of used to take away extra fluid from the blood throughout dialysis.

A method that bounces protected, painless sound waves off organs to create a picture of their construction.

A nitrogenous waste product that’s shaped in the course of the breakdown of protein within the physique.

Urea discount ratio (URR)
A share that’s based mostly on how a lot blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was eliminated throughout a dialysis therapy. It signifies how successfully urea and different waste merchandise have been eliminated.

The buildup of waste merchandise within the blood because of the incapability of the kidneys to remove them.

Tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. 

The tube that carries urine from the bladder to the surface of the physique.

Uric acid stone
A kidney stone which will consequence from a weight-reduction plan that’s excessive in animal protein. When the physique breaks down this protein, uric acid ranges rise and may type stones.

A take a look at of a urine pattern that may reveal many issues of the urinary system and different physique methods. The pattern could also be noticed for colour, cloudiness and concentrations; indicators of drug use; chemical composition, together with sugar; and the presence of protein, blood cells, germs or different indicators of illness.

Urinary tract
The system that takes waste merchandise from the blood and carries them out of the physique within the type of urine. The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, renal pelvises, ureters, bladder and urethra.

Urinary tract an infection
An sickness brought on by dangerous micro organism rising within the urinary tract.

To launch urine from the bladder to outdoors the physique.

A liquid waste product that’s filtered from the blood by the kidneys, saved within the bladder and expelled from the physique via the urethra by the act of voiding or urinating.


Pertaining to blood vessels.

A blood vessel that carries blood from different elements of the physique again to the guts.

Referring to veins and the movement of blood to the guts.

Venous line
A tube that carries blood from the dialyzer again to the physique.

To urinate and empty the bladder.


Waste merchandise
Substances which might be shaped from the breakdown of protein in meals and from regular muscle exercise.

Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG)
An autoimmune illness that damages the blood vessels and causes illness within the lungs, higher respiratory tract and kidneys.

White blood cell
A sort of blood cell that fights an infection within the physique.

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