Hindi – Wikipedia
Indo-Aryan language spoken in India
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ISO 15919: Hindī), or extra exactly Fashionable Commonplace Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ISO 15919: Mānak Hindī), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in India. Hindi has been described as a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is predicated totally on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and neighbouring areas of Northern India. Hindi, written within the Devanagari script, is likely one of the two official languages of the Authorities of India, together with the English language. It’s an official language in 9 States and three Union Territories and a further official language in 3 different States. Hindi can also be one of many 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India.
Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt and to a lesser extent different components of India (often in a simplified or pidginised selection reminiscent of Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi). Outdoors India, a number of different languages are recognised formally as “Hindi” however don’t seek advice from the Commonplace Hindi language described right here and as an alternative descend from different dialects, reminiscent of Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages embody Fiji Hindi, which is official in Fiji, and Caribbean Hindustani, which is spoken in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname. Other than the script and formal vocabulary, commonplace Hindi is mutually intelligible with commonplace Urdu, one other recognised register of Hindustani as each share a typical colloquial base.
As a linguistic selection, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language on the earth, after Mandarin, Spanish and English. Hindi alongside Urdu as Hindustani is the third most-spoken language on the earth, after Mandarin and English.
The time period Hindī initially was used to seek advice from inhabitants of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It was borrowed from Classical Persian هندی Hindī (Iranian Persian pronunciation: Hendi), which means “of or belonging to Hind (India)” (therefore, “Indian”).
One other identify Hindavī (हिन्दवी) or Hinduī (हिन्दुई) (from Persian: هندوی “of or belonging to the Hindu/Indian folks”) was typically used previously, for instance by Amir Khusrow in his poetry.
The phrases “Hindi” and “Hindu” hint again to Outdated Persian which derived these names from the Sanskrit identify Sindhu (सिन्धु ), referring to the river Indus. The Greek cognates of the identical phrases are “Indus” (for the river) and “India” (for the land of the river).
Center Indo-Aryan to Hindi
Like different Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early type of Vedic Sanskrit, via Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa (from Sanskrit apabhraṃśa “corrupt”), which emerged within the seventh century CE.
The sound modifications that characterised the transition from Center Indo-Aryan to Hindi are:
- Compensatory lengthening of vowels previous geminate consonants, generally with spontaneous nasalization: Skt. hasta “hand” > Pkt. hattha > hāth
- Lack of all word-final vowels: rātri “evening” > rattī > rāt
- Formation of nasalized lengthy vowels from nasal consonants (-VNC- > -V̄̃C-): bandha “bond” > bā̃dh
- Lack of unaccented or unstressed brief vowels (mirrored in schwa deletion): susthira “agency” > sutthira > suthrā
- Collapsing of adjoining vowels (together with separated by a hiatus: apara “different” > avara > aur
- Ultimate -m to -ṽ: grāma “village” > gāma > gāṽ
- Intervocalic -ḍ- to -ṛ- or -l-: taḍāga “pond” > talāv, naḍa “reed” > nal.
- v > b: vivāha “marriage” > byāh
After the arrival of Islamic administrative rule in northern India, Outdated Hindi acquired many loanwords from Persian, in addition to Arabic, which led to the event of Hindustani. Within the 18th century, an intensively Persianised model of Hindustani emerged and got here to be known as Urdu. The rising significance of Hindustani in colonial India and the affiliation of Urdu with Muslims prompted Hindus to develop a Sanskritised model of Hindustani, resulting in the formation of Fashionable Commonplace Hindi a century after the creation of Urdu.
Earlier than the standardisation of Hindi on the Delhi dialect, varied dialects and languages of the Hindi belt attained prominence via literary standardisation, reminiscent of Avadhi and Braj Bhasha. Early Hindi literature happened within the Twelfth and thirteenth centuries CE. This physique of labor included the early epics reminiscent of renditions of the Dhola Maru within the Marwari of Marwar, the Prithviraj Raso within the Braj Bhasha of Braj, and the works of Amir Khusrow within the dialect of Delhi.
Fashionable Commonplace Hindi is predicated on the Delhi dialect, the vernacular of Delhi and the encircling area, which got here to exchange earlier status dialects reminiscent of Awadhi, Maithili (generally thought to be separate from the Hindi dialect continuum) and Braj. Urdu – thought-about one other type of Hindustani – acquired linguistic status within the latter a part of the Mughal interval (1800s), and underwent vital Persian affect. Fashionable Hindi and its literary custom developed in the direction of the tip of the 18th century.John Gilchrist was principally recognized for his research of the Hindustani language, which was adopted because the lingua franca of northern India (together with what’s now present-day Pakistan) by British colonists and indigenous folks. He compiled and authored An English-Hindustani Dictionary, A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language, The Oriental Linguist, and plenty of extra. His lexicon of Hindustani was printed within the Perso-Arabic script, Nāgarī script, and in Roman transliteration. He’s additionally recognized for his position within the basis of College Faculty London and for endowing the Gilchrist Instructional Belief.
Within the late nineteenth century, a motion to additional develop Hindi as a standardised type of Hindustani separate from Urdu took kind. In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, changing Urdu, and thus turned the primary state of India to undertake Hindi.
After independence, the federal government of India instituted the next conventions:[original research?]
- standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Authorities of India arrange a committee to organize a grammar of Hindi; The committee’s report was launched in 1958 as A Primary Grammar of Fashionable Hindi.
- standardisation of the orthography, utilizing the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Training and Tradition to result in uniformity in writing, to enhance the form of some Devanagari characters, and introducing diacritics to specific sounds from different languages.
On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Meeting of India adopted Hindi written within the Devanagari script because the official language of the Republic of India changing Urdu’s earlier utilization in British India. To this finish, a number of stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favour of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha together with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this problem. As such, on the fiftieth birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts got here to fruition following the adoption of Hindi because the official language. Now, it’s celebrated as Hindi Day.
Half XVII of the Indian Structure offers with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Below Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which incorporates Hindi in Devanagari script and English:
(1) The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The type of numerals for use for the official functions of the Union shall be the worldwide type of Indian numerals.
(2) However something in clause (1), for a interval of fifteen years from the graduation of this Structure, the English language shall proceed for use for all of the official functions of the Union for which it was getting used instantly earlier than such graduation: Offered that the President might, in the course of the mentioned interval, by order authorise the usage of the Hindi language along with the English language and of the Devanagari type of numerals along with the worldwide type of Indian numerals for any of the official functions of the Union.
Article 351 of the Indian structure states
It shall be the responsibility of the Union to advertise the unfold of the Hindi language, to develop it in order that it could function a medium of expression for all the weather of the composite tradition of India and to safe its enrichment by assimilating with out interfering with its genius, the types, type and expressions utilized in Hindustani and within the different languages of India specified within the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever essential or fascinating, for its vocabulary, totally on Sanskrit and secondarily on different languages.
It was envisioned that Hindi would develop into the only real working language of the Union Authorities by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and Article 351), with state governments being free to perform within the language of their very own selection. Nonetheless, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi on non-native audio system, particularly in South India (such because the these in Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963, which offered for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official functions, though the constitutional directive for the Union Authorities to encourage the unfold of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its insurance policies.
Article 344 (2b) stipulates that official language fee shall be constituted each ten years to advocate steps for progressive use of Hindi language and imposing restrictions on the usage of the English language by the union authorities. In apply, the official language commissions are continuously endeavouring to advertise Hindi however not imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union authorities.
On the state stage, Hindi is the official language of the next Indian states: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. It acts as a further official language of West Bengal in blocks and sub-divisions with greater than 10% of the inhabitants talking Hindi. Every can also designate a “co-official language”; in Uttar Pradesh, for example, relying on the political formation in energy, this language is usually Urdu. Equally, Hindi is accorded the standing of official language within the following Union Territories: Nationwide Capital Territory, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
Nationwide language standing for Hindi is a long-debated theme. In 2010, the Gujarat Excessive Court docket clarified that Hindi is just not the nationwide language of India as a result of the structure doesn’t point out it as such.
Outdoors Asia, the Awadhi language (an Jap Hindi dialect) with affect from Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Fijian and English is spoken in Fiji. It’s an official language in Fiji as per the 1997 Structure of Fiji, the place it referred to it as “Hindustani”, nevertheless within the 2013 Structure of Fiji, it’s merely known as “Fiji Hindi”. It’s spoken by 380,000 folks in Fiji.
Hindi is spoken as a primary language by about 77,569 folks in Nepal in accordance with the 2011 Nepal census, and additional by 1,225,950 folks as a second language.
Hindi is a protected langue in South Africa. In keeping with the Structure of South Africa, the Pan South African Language Board should promote and guarantee respect for Hindi together with different languages.
Hindi is the lingua franca of northern India (which comprises the Hindi Belt), in addition to an official language of the Authorities of India, together with English.
In Northeast India a pidgin referred to as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for the folks dwelling in Haflong, Assam who converse different languages natively. In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca amongst locals who converse over 50 dialects natively.
Hindi is kind of simple to know for a lot of Pakistanis, who converse Urdu, which, like Hindi, is an ordinary register of the Hindustani language; moreover, Indian media are extensively considered in Pakistan.
A sizeable inhabitants in Afghanistan, particularly in Kabul, may also converse and perceive Hindi-Urdu because of the recognition and affect of Bollywood movies, songs and actors within the area.
Hindi can also be spoken by a big inhabitants of Madheshis (folks having roots in north-India however have migrated to Nepal over tons of of years) of Nepal. Other than this, Hindi is spoken by the big Indian diaspora which hails from, or has its origin from the “Hindi Belt” of India. A considerably giant North Indian diaspora lives in international locations like the USA of America, the UK, the United Arab Emirates, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, South Africa, Fiji and Mauritius, the place it’s natively spoken at residence and amongst their very own Hindustani-speaking communities. Outdoors India, Hindi audio system are 8 million in Nepal; 863,077 in United States of America; 450,170 in Mauritius; 380,000 in Fiji; 250,292 in South Africa; 150,000 in Suriname; 100,000 in Uganda; 45,800 in United Kingdom; 20,000 in New Zealand; 20,000 in Germany; 26,000 in Trinidad and Tobago; 3,000 in Singapore.
Comparability with Fashionable Commonplace Urdu
Linguistically, Hindi and Urdu are two registers of the identical language and are mutually intelligible. Hindi is written within the Devanagari script and comprises extra Sanskrit-derived phrases than Urdu, whereas Urdu is written within the Perso-Arabic script and makes use of extra Arabic and Persian loanwords than does Hindi. Nonetheless, each share a core vocabulary of native Prakrit and Sanskrit-derived phrases, with giant numbers of Arabic and Persian loanwords. Due to this, in addition to the truth that the 2 registers share an an identical grammar, a consensus of linguists think about them to be two standardised types of the identical language, Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu. Hindi is probably the most generally used official language in India. Urdu is the nationwide language and lingua franca of Pakistan and is one in all 22 official languages of India, additionally having official standing in Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Delhi.
The comparability of Hindi and Urdu as separate languages is essentially motivated by politics, particularly the Indo-Pakistani rivalry.
Hindi is written within the Devanagari script, an abugida. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to proper. Not like for Sanskrit, Devanagari is just not solely phonetic for Hindi, particularly failing to mark schwa dropping in spoken Commonplace Hindi.
The Authorities of India makes use of Hunterian transliteration as its official system of writing Hindi within the Latin script. Varied different methods additionally exist, reminiscent of IAST, ITRANS and ISO 15919.
Historically, Hindi phrases are divided into 5 principal classes in accordance with their etymology:
- Tatsam (तत्सम “identical as that”) phrases: These are phrases that are spelled the identical in Hindi as in Sanskrit (apart from the absence of ultimate case inflections). They embody phrases inherited from Sanskrit by way of Prakrit which have survived with out modification (e.g. Hindi नाम nām / Sanskrit नाम nāma, “identify”; Hindi कर्म karm / Sanskrit कर्म karma, “deed, motion; karma”), in addition to types borrowed straight from Sanskrit in additional fashionable instances (e.g. प्रार्थना prārthanā, “prayer”). Pronunciation, nevertheless, conforms to Hindi norms and should differ from that of classical Sanskrit. Amongst nouns, the tatsam phrase may very well be the Sanskrit non-inflected word-stem, or it may very well be the nominative singular kind within the Sanskrit nominal declension.
- Ardhatatsam (अर्धतत्सम “semi-tatsama”) phrases: Such phrases are usually earlier loanwords from Sanskrit which have undergone sound modifications subsequent to being borrowed. (e.g. Hindi सूरज sūraj from Sanskrit सूर्य sūrya)
- Tadbhav (तद्भव “born of that”) phrases: These are native Hindi phrases derived from Sanskrit after present process phonological guidelines (e.g. Sanskrit कर्म karma, “deed” turns into Sauraseni Prakrit कम्म kamma, and ultimately Hindi काम kām, “work”) and are spelled in a different way from Sanskrit.
- Deshaj (देशज) phrases: These are phrases that weren’t borrowings however don’t derive from attested Indo-Aryan phrases both. Belonging to this class are onomatopoetic phrases or ones borrowed from native non-Indo-Aryan languages.
- Videshī (विदेशी “overseas”) phrases: These embody all loanwords from non-indigenous languages. Probably the most frequent supply languages on this class are Persian, Arabic, English and Portuguese. Examples are क़िला qila “fort” from Persian, कमेटी kameṭī from English committee and साबुन sābun “cleaning soap” from Arabic.
Hindi additionally makes intensive use of mortgage translation (calqueing) and infrequently phono-semantic matching of English.
Hindi has naturally inherited a big portion of its vocabulary from Śaurasenī Prākṛt, within the type of tadbhava phrases. This course of often entails compensatory lengthening of vowels previous consonant clusters in Prakrit, e.g. Sanskrit tīkṣṇa > Prakrit tikkha > Hindi tīkhā.
A lot of Fashionable Commonplace Hindi’s vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit as tatsam borrowings, particularly in technical and educational fields. The formal Hindi commonplace, from which a lot of the Persian, Arabic and English vocabulary has been changed by neologisms compounding tatsam phrases, known as Śuddh Hindi (pure Hindi), and is considered as a extra prestigious dialect over different extra colloquial types of Hindi.
Extreme use of tatsam phrases generally creates issues for native audio system. They could have Sanskrit consonant clusters which don’t exist in native Hindi, inflicting difficulties in pronunciation.
As part of the method of Sanskritization, new phrases are coined utilizing Sanskrit parts for use as replacements for supposedly overseas vocabulary. Often these neologisms are calques of English phrases already adopted into spoken Hindi. Some phrases reminiscent of dūrbhāṣ “phone”, actually “far-speech” and dūrdarśan “tv”, actually “far-sight” have even gained some forex in formal Hindi within the place of the English borrowings (ṭeli)fon and ṭīvī.
Hindi additionally options vital Persian affect, standardised from spoken Hindustani.[page needed] Early borrowings, starting within the mid-Twelfth century, have been particular to Islam (e.g. Muhammad, islām) and so Persian was merely an middleman for Arabic. Later, below the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire, Persian turned the first administrative language within the Hindi heartland. Persian borrowings reached a heyday within the seventeenth century, pervading all elements of life. Even grammatical constructs, particularly the izafat, have been assimilated into Hindi.
Submit-Partition the Indian authorities advocated for a coverage of Sanskritization resulting in a marginalisation of the Persian factor in Hindi. Nonetheless, many Persian phrases (e.g. muśkil “tough”, bas “sufficient”, havā “air”, x(a)yāl “thought”) have remained entrenched in Fashionable Commonplace Hindi, and a bigger quantity are nonetheless utilized in Urdu poetry written within the Devanagari script.
Arabic additionally reveals affect in Hindi, typically by way of Persian however generally straight.
Hindi literature is broadly divided into 4 distinguished types or types, being Bhakti (devotional – Kabir, Raskhan); Śṛṇgār (magnificence – Keshav, Bihari); Vīgāthā (epic); and Ādhunik (fashionable).
Medieval Hindi literature is marked by the affect of Bhakti motion and the composition of lengthy, epic poems. It was primarily written in different types of Hindi, significantly Avadhi and Braj Bhasha, however to a level additionally in Delhavi, the premise for Fashionable Commonplace Hindi. Through the British Raj, Hindustani turned the status dialect.
Chandrakanta, written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in 1888, is taken into account the primary genuine work of prose in fashionable Hindi. The one who introduced realism within the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is taken into account as probably the most revered determine on the earth of Hindi fiction and progressive motion. Literary, or Sāhityik, Hindi was popularised by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Bhartendu Harishchandra and others. The rising numbers of newspapers and magazines made Hindustani in style with the educated folks.
The Dvivedī Yug (“Age of Dwivedi”) in Hindi literature lasted from 1900 to 1918. It’s named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who performed a significant position in establishing Fashionable Commonplace Hindi in poetry and broadening the suitable topics of Hindi poetry from the normal ones of faith and romantic love.
Within the twentieth century, Hindi literature noticed a romantic upsurge. This is named Chāyāvād (shadow-ism) and the literary figures belonging to this college are referred to as Chāyāvādī. Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’, Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant, are the 4 main Chāyāvādī poets.
Uttar Ādhunik is the post-modernist interval of Hindi literature, marked by a questioning of early developments that copied the West in addition to the extreme ornamentation of the Chāyāvādī motion, and by a return to easy language and pure themes.
Hindi literature, music, and movie have all been disseminated by way of the web. In 2015, Google reported a 94% enhance in Hindi-content consumption year-on-year, including that 21% of customers in India desire content material in Hindi. Many Hindi newspapers additionally supply digital editions.
Pattern textual content
The next is a pattern textual content in Excessive Hindi, of the Article 1 of the Common Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):
- अनुच्छेद 1 (एक) – सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए।
- Transliteration (IAST)
- Anucched 1 (ek) – Sabhī manuṣyõ ko gaurav aur adhikārõ ke viṣay mẽ janmajāt svatantratā aur samāntā prāpt hai. Unhẽ buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unhẽ bhāīcāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā cāhie.
- Transcription (IPA)
- [ənʊtʃʰːeːd eːk | səbʱiː mənʊʃjõː koː ɡɔːɾəʋ ɔːr ədʱɪkaːɾõ keː maːmleː mẽː dʒənmədʒaːt sʋətəntɾətaː ɔːr səmaːntaː pɾaːpt hɛː ‖ ʊnʱẽ bʊdʱːɪ ɔːɾ əntəɾaːtmaː kiː deːn pɾaːpt hɛː ɔːɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽː bʱaːiːtʃaːɾeː keː bʱaːʋ seː bəɾtaːʋ kəɾnə tʃaːhɪeː ‖]
- Gloss (word-to-word)
- Article 1 (one) – All human-beings to dignity and rights’ matter in from-birth freedom and equality acquired is. Them to purpose and conscience’s endowment acquired is and at all times them to brotherhood’s spirit with behaviour to do ought to.
- Translation (grammatical)
- Article 1 – All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They’re endowed with purpose and conscience and will act in the direction of each other in a spirit of brotherhood.
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Urdu, like Hindi, was a standardized register of the Hindustani language deriving from the Delhi dialect and emerged within the eighteenth century below the rule of the late Mughals.
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Two types of the identical language, Nagarai Hindi and Persianized Hindi (Urdu) had an identical grammar, shared widespread phrases and roots, and employed totally different scripts.
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The nationwide language of India and Pakistan ‘Commonplace Urdu’ is mutually intelligible with ‘Commonplace Hindi’ as a result of each languages share the identical Indic base and are all however indistinguishable in phonology and grammar (Lust et al. 2000).
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The place of Hindi-Urdu among the many languages of the world is anomalous. The variety of its proficient audio system, over 300 million, locations it in third of fourth place after Mandarin, English, and maybe Spanish.
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The first sources of non-IA loans into MSH are Arabic, Persian, Portuguese, Turkic and English. Conversational registers of Hindi/Urdu (to not talked about formal registers of Urdu) make use of giant numbers of Persian and Arabic loanwords, though in Sanskritized registers many of those phrases are changed by tatsama types from Sanskrit. The Persian and Arabic lexical components in Hindi outcome from the consequences of centuries of Islamic administrative rule over a lot of north India within the centuries earlier than the institution of British rule in India. Though it’s typical to distinguish amongst Persian and Arabic mortgage components into Hindi/Urdu, in apply it’s typically tough to separate these strands from each other. The Arabic (and in addition Turkic) lexemes borrowed into Hindi continuously have been mediated via Persian, on account of which an intensive intertwining of Persian and Arabic components came about, as manifest by such phenomena as hybrid compounds and compound phrases. Furthermore, though the dominant trajectory of lexical borrowing was from Arabic into Persian, and thence into Hindi/Urdu, examples may be discovered of phrases that in origin are literally Persian loanwords into each Arabic and Hindi/Urdu.
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While the Muhammadan rulers of India spoke Persian, which loved the status of being their courtroom language, the widespread language of the nation continued to be Hindi, derived via Prakrit from Sanskrit. On this dialect of the widespread folks was grafted the Persian language, which introduced a brand new language, Urdu, into existence. Sir George Grierson, within the Linguistic Survey of India, assigns no distinct place to Urdu, however treats it as an offshoot of Western Hindi.
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