NKF KDOQI Guidelines
May 23, 2021 0 Comments


KDOQI Scientific Observe Tips for Bone Metabolism and Illness in Continual Kidney Illness


This Guideline encompasses 2 elements: Guideline 8A, which offers with energetic vitamin D sterol remedy in CKD Levels 3 and 4, and Guideline 8B, which offers with CKD Stage 5.


8B.1 Sufferers handled with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis with serum ranges of intact PTH ranges >300 pg/mL (33.0 pmol/L) ought to obtain an energetic vitamin D sterol (akin to calcitriol, alfacalcidol, paricalcitol, or doxercalciferol; see Desk 28) to cut back the serum ranges of PTH to a goal vary of 150 to 300 pg/mL (16.5 to 33.0 pmol/L). (EVIDENCE)

8B.1a The intermittent, intravenous administration of calcitriol is simpler than every day oral calcitriol in reducing serum PTH ranges. (EVIDENCE)

8B.1b In sufferers with corrected serum calcium and/or phosphorus ranges above the goal vary (see Tips 3 and 6, respectively), a trial of other vitamin D analogs, akin to paricalcitol or doxercalciferol could also be warranted. (OPINION)

8B.2 When remedy with vitamin D sterols is initiated or the dose is elevated, serum ranges of calcium and phosphorus must be monitored at the least each 2 weeks for 1 month after which month-to-month thereafter. The plasma PTH must be measured month-to-month for at the least 3 months after which each 3 months as soon as goal ranges of PTH are achieved. (OPINION)

8B.3 For sufferers handled with peritoneal dialysis, oral doses of calcitriol (0.5 to 1.0 µg) or doxercalciferol (2.5 to five.0 µg) could be given 2 or 3 instances weekly. Alternatively, a decrease dose of calcitriol (0.25 µg) could be administered every day. (OPINION)

8B.4 When both hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis sufferers are handled with energetic vitamin D sterols, administration ought to combine the modifications in serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and plasma PTH. Every of those three variables is taken into account individually with instructed interventions based mostly on the assorted values obtained in Algorithm 3, Algorithm 4, and Algorithm 5. (OPINION)

Algorithm 3. Managing Vitamin D sterols based mostly on serum calcium ranges.


Algorithm 4. Managing Vitamin D sterols based mostly on serum phosphorus ranges.

Algorithm 5. Managing Vitamin D sterols based mostly on intact PTH ranges.


Sufferers with CKD who bear dialysis have lowered plasma ranges of 1,25(OH)2D3. This results in lowered intestinal absorption of calcium (thereby contributing to hypocalcemia) and impaired suppression of the parathyroid gene that initiates the synthesis of PTH. The result’s secondary hyperparathyroidism that always progresses. Remedy with calcitriol or one other energetic vitamin D sterol each reduces PTH secretion with resultant enchancment of hyperparathyroid bone illness, and improves musculoskeletal signs, when these are current.

Fig 12. Meta-analysis of oral versus intravenous calcitriol on PTH suppression.

A significant side-effect of vitamin D remedy is elevated intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus; this may produce hypercalcemia and irritate hyperphosphatemia. Remedy with energetic vitamin D sterols also can markedly decrease serum ranges of intact PTH and scale back bone formation strikingly; this may produce a situation with low bone turnover, termed adynamic bone illness. For these causes, serum ranges of calcium and phosphorus, and people of intact PTH, should be monitored throughout vitamin D remedy, and vitamin D remedy adjusted accordingly (Algorithm 3, Algorithm 4, and Algorithm 5).


Remedy of secondary hyperparathyroidism in end-stage kidney illness sufferers with oral or intravenous calcitriol, intravenous paricalcitol, oral or intravenous doxercalciferol, or oral or intravenous alfacalcidol can scale back the elevated ranges of intact PTH,11,261-270 and could also be helpful to deal with numerous scientific options of symptomatic secondary hyperparathyroidism.261,263,266 With such remedy, improved options of hyperparathyroid bone illness have been reported.262,263,271,272 Reductions of each plasma whole alkaline phosphatase and/or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, in line with a discount of the elevated bone turnover state, have been proven throughout remedy with a number of of those vitamin D preparations.11, 262-264,266,271,273

Energy of Proof

In dialysis sufferers who haven’t obtained vitamin D, or those that have obtained every day oral calcitriol in doses decrease than 0.5 µg/day, serum ranges of intact PTH correlate with the diploma of secondary hyperparathyroidism33,34,274; furthermore, sufferers with intact PTH ranges <400 pg/mL (44.0 pmol/L) and regular (or low) serum ranges of calcium, normally have solely gentle hyperparathyroidism.33,274 In these sufferers, the optimum management of serum phosphorus ranges, mixed with using calcium-based phosphate binders, could end in no additional rise of serum PTH ranges. When serum ranges of intact PTH exceed 500 to 600 pg/mL (55.0 to 66.0 pmol/L), average and even extreme hyperparathyroid bone illness is common. When intact PTH ranges exceed 1,000 pg/mL (110.0 pmol/L), bigger doses of the vitamin D sterols are typically required.269, 275-278 Throughout remedy with intravenous calcitriol275 or oral doxercalciferol269 in potential trials, there’s proof that bigger doses are required for the remedy of sufferers with extreme secondary hyperparathyroidism in comparison with sufferers with much less extreme hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the suppression of serum ranges of intact PTH in sufferers with extreme hyperparathyroidism could require remedy for longer intervals of time, eg, greater than 12 to 24 weeks.269,275-277 The explanation for the delayed response of some sufferers is unclear; it is likely to be associated to upregulation of vitamin D receptors which are typically lowered within the giant nodular parathyroid glands in end-stage kidney illness sufferers with extra extreme secondary hyperparathyroidism.279

It is strongly recommended that the dosage of a vitamin D sterol be adjusted in accordance with the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The proof that intact PTH ranges correlate with the severity of bone illness in sufferers who haven’t obtained pulse-dose intravenous or oral calcitriol is sort of good.33,34 Nonetheless, the optimum doses of vitamin D sterols and the optimum serum ranges of intact PTH that must be the goal in sufferers who’ve obtained such remedy for longer than 6 to 12 months is much less sure.

A number of trials that weren’t placebo-controlled have proven the effectiveness of intermittent intravenous and intermittent oral calcitriol to suppress serum ranges of intact PTH in sufferers present process hemodialysis,15,280 together with some sufferers with extreme hyperparathyroidism280-283; furthermore, these outcomes appeared extra favorable than earlier experiences with every day oral dosing when reductions of dosage had been generally wanted.284,285 Nonetheless, the meta-analysis of 4 trials that in contrast intermittent intravenous calcitriol with oral calcitriol in randomized, managed research286,287 or cross-over trials288,289 indicated that intravenous remedy was simpler than oral remedy (both every day or “pulse” remedy) for the suppression of intact PTH ranges (Fig 12). Nonetheless, there are particular {qualifications} concerning the trials mixed for this meta-analysis: Two trials in contrast every day oral remedy with thrice weekly intravenous remedy287,289; within the trial that studied sufferers with the very best pretreatment intact PTH ranges, the oral “group” was a mix of 1 group randomly assigned to intermittent remedy and a second group assigned to every day remedy.290 The diploma of hyperparathyroidism was very gentle in 2 trials, because the entry intact PTH ranges averaged lower than 400 pg/mL (44.0 pmol/L).287,288 In 2 trials that prospectively in contrast intermittent oral and intravenous calcitriol in sufferers with extra extreme hyperparathyroidism,291,292 the numbers of sufferers finishing the examine was too small (n < 10) to satisfy the standards for the meta-analysis. In sufferers with extra extreme hyperparathyroidism (trials with intravenous calcitriol that adjusted the dosage upward if PTH ranges weren't suppressed), using calcitriol doses beneath 0.75 to 1.0 µg per remedy had been typically much less efficient in reducing intact PTH ranges.275,293 Furthermore, the sooner placebo-controlled trials with every day oral calcitriol discovered that sufferers might hardly ever tolerate every day doses of 0.5 µg per day with out creating hypercalcemia. 284,285

The outcomes of oral trials with calcitriol that weren’t placebo-controlled result in the conclusion that pulse or intermittent remedy yielded higher outcomes than had been reported with every day remedy; meta-analysis of the outcomes of three randomized, managed trials that in contrast every day oral with intermittent oral calcitriol failed to point out any superiority of intermittent remedy over every day remedy.265, 290,294 Two of those research265,294 had sufferers with solely gentle hyperparathyroidism, and few sufferers entered into remedy with intact PTH ranges above 600 pg/mL (66.0 pmol/L). Regardless of randomization of remedy in a single examine,294 every of the 5 sufferers having pretreatment intact PTH ranges above 600 pg/mL (66.0 pmol/L) had been assigned to intermittent remedy. In one other examine,290 the trial with the very best pretreatment intact PTH ranges, the serum calcium ranges had been increased with every day than with intermittent remedy. Thus, conclusions about there being no distinction relying on the frequency of dosing should be considered with warning.

The foremost unwanted effects of energetic vitamin D sterols, together with calcitriol and alfacalcidol, are will increase within the serum ranges of calcium and phosphorus resulting in hypercalcemia and worsening of hyperphosphatemia. These considerations have led to efforts to develop analogs of vitamin D which could have much less calcemic and/or phosphatemic results, whereas retaining efficacy for the suppression of excessive ranges of PTH.295,296 A number of such analogs are actually in scientific use. Paricalcitol and doxercalciferol can be found in the USA, and maxicalcitol and falecalcitol can be found in Asia.11,270,297,298 Intensive information in regular animals and in experimental animals with uremia have demonstrated that maxicalcitol and paricalcitol are much less calcemic and phosphatemic than calcitriol and but retain effectiveness in suppressing PTH.299-301 Research in vitamin D-deficient animals with doxercalciferol have demonstrated no distinction in calcium or phosphorus absorption from the gut and in modifications in serum calcium in comparison with alfacalcidol, however doxercalciferol was related to a decreased mortality in toxicology research.302,303 Extra research have proven that doxercalciferol is related to much less calciuria than alfacalcidol.304,305 Definitive quantitative information evaluating these vitamin D sterols to calcitriol or to one another in managed scientific trials usually are not accessible at the moment.

In placebo-controlled trials with calcitriol, alfacalcidol, paricalcitol, and doxercalciferol, there have been increments of serum phosphorus throughout remedy,11, 269,306-309 and evaluation indicated no distinction between the sterols relating to their results on elevating serum ranges of phosphorus. Remedy with vitamin D shouldn’t be undertaken or continued if serum phosphorus ranges exceed 6.5 mg/dL, due to this threat of additional elevating serum phosphorus ranges.

One other side-effect of intermittent remedy with an energetic vitamin D sterol is the looks of subnormal bone formation, with “adynamic” or “aplastic” bone.62,310 In end-stage kidney illness sufferers who had not obtained pulse doses of calcitriol and had intact PTH ranges beneath 150 pg/mL (16.5 pmol/L), there was a excessive incidence of subnormal bone formation on bone biopsy, with “adynamic” or “aplastic” bone.33 When intact PTH ranges are beneath 65 pg/mL (7.15 pmol/L), the prevalence of adynamic bone is almost common.26,33 Delicate hyperparathyroid bone illness could also be preferable to adynamic bone due to the lack of the capability of bone buffering for the added extracellular calcium;174 this doubtless accounts for the elevated threat of hypercalcemia in sufferers with adynamic bone.14,62 Additionally, there could also be elevated threat of vascular calcification in sufferers with biochemical options which are in line with adynamic bone.91 In adolescents and younger adults with end-stage kidney illness, adynamic bone310 and even lowered linear progress occurred in affiliation with intermittent calcitriol remedy when the intact PTH ranges had been lowered beneath 400 to 450 pg/mL (44.0 to 49.5 pmol/L).311 Reported observations of the event of adynamic bone in grownup end-stage kidney illness sufferers in affiliation with pulse remedy with calcitriol are restricted to a small quantity312; nevertheless, there’s little purpose to consider that the bone of adults wouldn’t present the results noticed in pediatric-age sufferers.

When one elects to look at dialysis sufferers with intact PTH ranges <600 pg/mL (66.0 pmol/L) with out initiating vitamin D remedy, serial intact PTH ranges must be monitored. If the degrees present a progressive rise, remedy must be initiated.


Lots of the research cited above with calcitriol and alfacalcidol that originated earlier than 1980 lacked parallel management teams,261-264,266, 271,272,313-315 and the assays for PTH had been variable and a few concerned PTH fragments261-264,266 which are cleared by the kidney; thus, comparability with the present trials that make the most of so-called “intact PTH” isn’t potential. Additionally, many sufferers within the early trials had “extreme” and symptomatic bone illness, findings which have change into extra uncommon with higher management of secondary hyperparathyroidism. With research of the “newer” vitamin D sterols, akin to falecalcitriol, paricalcitol, and doxercalciferol, there have been typically parallel controls. 11,268,269,298 Nonetheless, the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism was gentle to average, based mostly on pretreatment serum ranges of intact PTH, in most sufferers entered into trials with falecalcitriol268,298 or paricalcitol.11 For these causes, comparability of information with the completely different vitamin D sterols should be considered tentative, significantly for sufferers with extreme secondary hyperparathyroidism, outlined as serum ranges of intact PTH >1,200 pg/mL (132.0 pmol/L). Additionally, it’s virtually sure that such sufferers can be thought-about inappropriate for a long-term, placebo-controlled trial.

The conclusions that pulse intravenous remedy is best then pulse oral remedy should even be considered tentative; equally, the conclusions that every day oral remedy is as efficient as pulse oral remedy given 2 or 3 instances per week could solely apply to sufferers with gentle secondary hyperparathyroidism for the explanations famous above.

Scientific Purposes

Secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperparathyroid high-turnover bone illness in CKD are treatable abnormalities with energetic vitamin D sterols. There are various of those sterols accessible and others are being developed. Since one of many side-effects of the remedy with these sterols is hypercalcemia, one would wish to use a sterol efficient in remedy of the bone dysfunction with much less or no hypercalcemia.

Suggestions for Analysis

Trials that evaluate completely different vitamin D sterols in sufferers with end-stage kidney illness are wanted. Additionally, potential trials are wanted to guage the impact of pulse-dose calcitriol or different vitamin D sterol on bone, with examine of the connection between serum ranges of intact PTH and bone turnover utilizing double tetracycline, to evaluate a presumably necessary side-effect of vitamin D remedy. Furthermore, little is understood concerning the superb goal for serum ranges of intact PTH throughout remedy with vitamin D. It’s potential that the incidence of adynamic bone will enhance considerably if vitamin D sterols are employed in sufferers who’ve solely modest elevations of intact PTH ranges. Research are wanted to look at the worth of bone markers and to evaluate the connection between the so-called “entire PTH molecule,” “intact PTH,” and bone histomorphometry throughout vitamin D remedy. Massive research that consider fracture charges ought to embrace information on earlier vitamin D remedy in an effort to determine whether or not vitamin D remedy can modify the excessive incidence of fractures famous in end-stage kidney illness sufferers.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *