Peritoneal Dialysis | NIDDK

Hemodialysis | NIDDK
November 15, 2020 0 Comments

You will discover details about peritoneal dialysis on this web page, together with solutions to the next questions:

What’s peritoneal dialysis and the way does it work?

Peritoneal dialysis is a remedy for kidney failure that makes use of the liner of your stomach, or stomach, to filter your blood inside your physique. Well being care suppliers name this lining the peritoneum.

Just a few weeks earlier than you begin peritoneal dialysis, a surgeon locations a tender tube, referred to as a catheter, in your stomach.

While you begin remedy, dialysis answer—water with salt and different components—flows from a bag by the catheter into your stomach. When the bag is empty, you disconnect it and place a cap in your catheter so you may transfer round and do your regular actions. Whereas the dialysis answer is inside your stomach, it absorbs wastes and additional fluid out of your physique.

Diagram of peritoneal dialysis shows a bag of dialysis solution connected to a catheter going into the abdominal cavity—also outlines the peritoneum.
Peritoneal dialysis

After a couple of hours, the answer and the wastes are drained out of your stomach into the empty bag. You possibly can throw away the used answer in a bathroom or tub. Then, you begin over with a recent bag of dialysis answer. When the answer is recent, it absorbs wastes shortly. As time passes, filtering slows. For that reason, it’s essential to repeat the method of emptying the used answer and refilling your stomach with recent answer 4 to 6 occasions day-after-day. This course of is named an change.

You are able to do your exchanges through the day, or at night time utilizing a machine that pumps the fluid out and in. For the perfect outcomes, it will be important that you just carry out all your exchanges as prescribed. Dialysis might help you are feeling higher and dwell longer, however it’s not a treatment for kidney failure.

How will I really feel when the dialysis answer is inside my stomach?

Chances are you’ll really feel the identical as common, or chances are you’ll really feel full or bloated. Your stomach might enlarge slightly. Some folks want a bigger measurement of clothes. You shouldn’t really feel any ache. Most individuals feel and appear regular regardless of a stomach stuffed with answer.

What are the forms of peritoneal dialysis?

You possibly can select the kind of peritoneal dialysis that most closely fits your life:

  • steady ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
  • automated peritoneal dialysis

The primary variations between the 2 forms of peritoneal dialysis are

  • the schedule of exchanges
  • one makes use of a machine and the opposite is finished by hand

If one sort of peritoneal dialysis doesn’t swimsuit you, speak along with your physician about making an attempt the opposite sort.

CAPD doesn’t use a machine. You do the exchanges through the day by hand.

You are able to do exchanges by hand in any clear, well-lit place. Every change takes about 30 to 40 minutes. Throughout an change, you may learn, speak, watch tv, or sleep. With CAPD, you retain the answer in your stomach for 4 to six hours or extra. The time that the dialysis answer is in your stomach is named the dwell time. Normally, you alter the answer at the least 4 occasions a day and sleep with answer in your stomach at night time. You would not have to get up at night time to do an change.

Drawing of a person reading during CAPD. A bag of fresh dialysis solution hangs from a pole and is connected to a tube that has a clamp. The tube connects to a transfer set, a disposable tube that connects to another tube that enters the person’s abdomen. Tubing also connects from the transfer set to the drain bag on the floor.
Throughout an change, you may learn, speak, watch tv, or sleep.

Automated peritoneal dialysis. A machine does the exchanges when you sleep.

With automated peritoneal dialysis, a machine referred to as a cycler fills and empties your stomach three to 5 occasions through the night time. Within the morning, you start the day with recent answer in your stomach. Chances are you’ll go away this answer in your stomach all day or do one change in the course of the afternoon with out the machine. Individuals generally name this remedy steady cycler-assisted peritoneal dialysis or CCPD.

The place can I do peritoneal dialysis?

You are able to do each CAPD and automatic peritoneal dialysis in any clear, personal place, together with at house, at work, or when travelling.

Earlier than you journey, you may have the producer ship the provides to the place you’re going so that they’ll be there whenever you get there. In the event you use automated peritoneal dialysis, you’ll have to hold your machine with you or plan to do exchanges by hand when you’re away from house.

How do I put together for peritoneal dialysis?

Surgical procedure to place in your catheter

Earlier than your first remedy, you’ll have surgical procedure to put a catheter into your stomach. Planning your catheter placement at the least 3 weeks earlier than your first change can enhance remedy success.

Though you need to use the catheter for dialysis as quickly because it’s in place, the catheter tends to work higher when you could have 10 to twenty days to heal earlier than beginning a full schedule of exchanges.

Your surgeon will make a small minimize, typically under and slightly to the facet of your stomach button, after which information the catheter by the slit into your peritoneal cavity. You’ll obtain common or native anesthesia, and chances are you’ll want to remain in a single day within the hospital. Nonetheless, most individuals can go house after the process.

You’ll study to take care of the pores and skin across the catheter, referred to as the exit website, as a part of your dialysis coaching.

Dialysis coaching

After coaching, most individuals can carry out each forms of peritoneal dialysis on their very own. You’ll work with a dialysis nurse for 1 to 2 weeks to learn to do exchanges and keep away from infections. Most individuals carry a member of the family or good friend to coaching. With a skilled good friend or member of the family, you’ll be ready in case you could have a sick day and need assistance with exchanges.

In the event you select automated peritoneal dialysis, you’ll learn to

  • put together the cycler
  • join the luggage of dialysis answer
  • place the drain tube

In the event you select automated peritoneal dialysis, you additionally have to learn to do exchanges by hand in case of an influence failure or should you want an change through the day along with nighttime automated peritoneal dialysis.

Couple meets with health care provider in their home.
A dialysis nurse will be sure you know how you can carry out your dialysis.

How do I carry out an change?

You’ll want the next provides:

  • switch set
  • dialysis answer
  • provides to maintain your exit website clear

In the event you select automated peritoneal dialysis you’ll want a cycler.

Your well being care crew will present every part it’s essential to start peritoneal dialysis and assist you to prepare to have provides equivalent to dialysis answer and surgical masks delivered to your house, often as soon as a month. Cautious hand washing earlier than and carrying a surgical masks over your nostril and mouth when you join your catheter to the switch set might help stop an infection.

Use a switch set to attach your catheter to the dialysis answer

A switch set is tubing that you just use to attach your catheter to the bag of dialysis answer. While you first get your catheter, the part of tube that stands out out of your pores and skin could have a safe cap on the top to forestall an infection. A connector below the cap will connect to any sort of switch set.

Close-up drawing of a transfer set. The permanent catheter connects to the transfer set, which has a disposable cap. Y-shaped disposable tubing has one branch coming from a hanging bag of fresh solution and one branch going to a drain bag. Both branches have clamps.
You join your catheter to the switch set to do your change.

Between exchanges, you may hold your catheter and switch set hidden inside your clothes. Initially of an change, you’ll take away the disposable cap from the switch set and join the set to a tube that branches just like the letter Y. One department of the Y-tube connects to the drain bag, whereas the opposite connects to the bag of recent dialysis answer.

Use dialysis answer as prescribed

Dialysis answer is available in 1.5-, 2-, 2.5-, or 3-liter luggage. Options comprise a sugar referred to as dextrose or a compound referred to as icodextrin and minerals to tug the wastes and additional fluid out of your blood into your stomach. Completely different options have completely different strengths of dextrose or icodextrin. Your physician will prescribe a method that matches your wants.

You’ll want a clear area to retailer your luggage of answer and different provides.

Doing an change by hand

  • After you wash your fingers and put in your surgical masks, drain the used dialysis answer out of your stomach into the drain bag. Close to the top of the drain, chances are you’ll really feel a light tugging sensation that tells you many of the fluid is gone. Shut the switch set.
  • Heat every bag of answer to physique temperature earlier than use. You need to use an electrical blanket, or let the bag sit in a bathtub of heat water. Most answer luggage are available in a protecting outer wrapper, and you’ll heat them in a microwave. Don’t microwave a bag of answer after you could have eliminated it from its wrapper.
  • Cling the brand new bag of answer on a pole and join it to the tubing.
  • Take away air from the tubes—enable a small quantity of recent, heat answer to circulate instantly from the brand new bag of answer into the drain bag.
  • Clamp the tube that goes to the drain bag.
  • Open or reconnect the switch set, and refill your stomach with recent dialysis answer from the hanging bag.

Utilizing a cycler for automated peritoneal dialysis exchanges

In automated peritoneal dialysis, you employ a machine referred to as a cycler to fill and drain your stomach. You possibly can program the cycler to present you completely different quantities of dialysis answer at completely different occasions.

Every night, you arrange the machine to do three to 5 exchanges for you. You join three to 5 luggage of dialysis answer to tubing that goes into the cycler—one bag of answer for every change. The machine might have a particular tube to attach the bag for the final change of the night time.

Drawing of person in bed next to a nightstand with a heater bag, fluid meter, pump, and two solution supply sources. Lines connect the solution supplies to the person. A drain line connects from the person and out of the frame of the drawing.
Automated peritoneal dialysis makes use of a machine referred to as a cycler to fill and empty your stomach three to 5 occasions through the night time when you sleep.

On the occasions you set, the cycler

  • releases a clamp and permits used answer to empty out of your stomach into the drain line
  • warms the recent dialysis answer earlier than it enters your physique
  • releases a clamp to permit body-temperature answer to circulate into your stomach

A fluid meter within the cycler measures and data how a lot answer the cycler removes. Some cyclers evaluate the quantity that was put in with the quantity that drains out. This function helps you to and your physician know if the remedy is eradicating sufficient fluid out of your physique.

Some cyclers can help you use an extended drain line that drains instantly into your bathroom or bathtub. Others have a disposal container.

What adjustments will I’ve to make once I begin peritoneal dialysis?

Every day routine

Your schedule will change as you’re employed your dialysis exchanges into your routine. In the event you do CAPD through the day, you could have some management over whenever you do the exchanges. Nonetheless, you’ll nonetheless have to cease your regular actions and take about half-hour to carry out an change. In the event you do automated peritoneal dialysis, you’ll need to arrange your cycler each night time.

Bodily exercise

Chances are you’ll have to restrict some bodily actions when your stomach is filled with dialysis answer. You should still be lively and play sports activities, however it’s best to talk about your actions along with your well being care crew.

Make adjustments to what you eat and drink

In the event you’re on peritoneal dialysis, chances are you’ll have to restrict

You may additionally have to

  • watch how a lot liquid you drink and eat. Your dietitian will assist you to decide how a lot liquid it’s essential to eat every day.
  • add protein to your food plan as a result of peritoneal dialysis removes protein.
  • select meals with the correct quantity of potassium.
  • take dietary supplements made for folks with kidney failure.

Consuming the suitable meals might help you are feeling higher when you’re on peritoneal dialysis. Discuss along with your dialysis middle’s dietitian to discover a meal plan that works for you.


Your physician might make adjustments to the medicines you are taking.


Adjusting to the consequences of kidney failure and the time you spend on dialysis may be arduous for each you and your loved ones. Chances are you’ll

  • have much less power
  • want to surrender some actions and duties at work or at house

A counselor or social employee can reply your questions and assist you to cope.

Care for your exit website, provides, and catheter to forestall infections

Your well being care crew will present you how you can hold your catheter clear to forestall infections. Listed below are some common guidelines:

  • Retailer your provides in a cool, clear, dry place.
  • Examine every bag of answer for indicators of contamination, equivalent to cloudiness, earlier than you employ it.
  • Discover a clear, dry, well-lit area to carry out your exchanges.
  • Wash your fingers each time it’s essential to deal with your catheter.
  • Clear your pores and skin the place your catheter enters your physique day-after-day, as instructed by your well being care crew.
  • Put on a surgical masks when performing exchanges.
Soapy hands at a sink with running water.
Wash your fingers earlier than you deal with your catheter.

What are the doable issues from peritoneal dialysis?

Doable issues from peritoneal dialysis embody an infection, hernia, and weight achieve.

An infection

Probably the most severe issues associated to peritoneal dialysis is an infection. You may get an an infection of the pores and skin round your catheter exit website or you may develop peritonitis, an an infection within the fluid in your stomach. Micro organism can enter your physique by your catheter as you join or disconnect it from the luggage.

Search speedy care in case you have indicators of an infection

Indicators of an exit website an infection embody redness, pus, swelling or bulging, and tenderness or ache on the exit website. Well being care professionals deal with infections on the exit website with antibiotics.

Peritonitis might trigger

  • ache within the stomach
  • fever
  • nausea or vomiting
  • redness or ache round your catheter
  • uncommon colour or cloudiness in used dialysis answer
  • the catheter cuff to push out out of your physique—the cuff is the a part of the catheter that holds it in place

Well being care professionals deal with peritonitis with antibiotics. Antibiotics are added to the dialysis answer you could often take at house. Fast remedy might stop extra issues.


A hernia is an space of weak point in your stomach muscle.

Peritoneal dialysis will increase your threat for a hernia for a few causes. First, you could have a gap in your muscle in your catheter. Second, the burden of the dialysis answer inside your stomach places strain in your muscle. Hernias can happen close to your stomach button, close to the exit website, or in your groin. When you have a swelling or new lump in your groin or stomach, speak along with your well being care skilled.

Weight achieve from fluid and dextrose

The longer the dialysis answer stays in your stomach, the extra dextrose your physique will take up from the dialysis answer. This could trigger weight achieve over time.

Restrict weight achieve

With CAPD, you might need an issue with the lengthy in a single day dwell time. In case your physique absorbs an excessive amount of fluid and dextrose in a single day, you could possibly use a cycler to change your answer as soon as when you sleep. This additional change will shorten your dwell time, hold your physique from absorbing an excessive amount of fluid and dextrose, and filter extra wastes and additional fluid out of your physique.

With automated peritoneal dialysis, chances are you’ll take up an excessive amount of answer through the daytime change, which has an extended dwell time. Chances are you’ll want an additional change within the midafternoon to maintain your physique from absorbing an excessive amount of answer and to take away extra wastes and additional fluid out of your physique.

Your dietitian can present useful steerage to cut back weight achieve.

How will I do know if my peritoneal dialysis is working?

To search out out in case your dialysis exchanges are eradicating sufficient wastes, you’ll have a blood take a look at and gather used dialysis answer as soon as a month. In the event you’re nonetheless urinating, chances are you’ll want to gather urine.

These assessments assist your physician prescribe a dialysis schedule and dose to satisfy your well being wants. In case your dialysis schedule isn’t eradicating sufficient wastes or your physique is absorbing an excessive amount of dextrose, your physician will make changes. Examine peritoneal dialysis dose and adequacy.

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