Rhyme – Wikipedia
Repetition of comparable sounds in language
A rhyme is a repetition of comparable sounds (often, precisely the identical sound) within the closing careworn syllables and any following syllables of two or extra phrases. Most frequently, this type of excellent rhyming is consciously used for inventive impact within the closing place of strains inside poems or songs. Extra broadly, a rhyme can also variously discuss with different forms of related sounds close to the ends of two or extra phrases. Moreover, the phrase rhyme has come to be typically used as a shorthand time period for any transient poem, reminiscent of a nursery rhyme or Balliol rhyme.
The phrase derives from Outdated French rime or ryme, which may be derived from Outdated Frankish rīm, a Germanic time period which means “sequence, sequence” attested in Outdated English (Outdated English rīm which means “enumeration, sequence, numeral”) and Outdated Excessive German rīm, in the end cognate to Outdated Irish rím, Greek ἀριθμός arithmos “quantity”. Alternatively, the Outdated French phrases could derive from Latin rhythmus, from Greek ῥυθμός (rhythmos, rhythm).
The spelling rhyme (from unique rime) was launched at the start of the Trendy English interval from a discovered (however maybe etymologically incorrect) affiliation with Latin rhythmus. The older spelling rime survives in Trendy English as a uncommon different spelling; cf. The Rime of the Historic Mariner. A distinction between the spellings can also be typically made within the examine of linguistics and phonology for which rime/rhyme is used to discuss with the nucleus and coda of a syllable. Some want to spell it rime to separate it from the poetic rhyme lined by this text (see syllable rime).
Perform of rhyming phrases
Rhyme partly appears to be loved merely as a repeating sample that’s nice to listen to. It additionally serves as a robust mnemonic machine, facilitating memorization. The common use of tail rhyme helps to mark off the ends of strains, thus clarifying the metrical construction for the listener. As with different poetic methods, poets use it to swimsuit their very own functions; for instance William Shakespeare usually used a rhyming couplet to mark off the tip of a scene in a play.
Sorts of rhyme
The phrase rhyme can be utilized in a particular and a common sense. Within the particular sense, two phrases rhyme if their closing careworn vowel and all following sounds are similar; two strains of poetry rhyme if their closing robust positions are full of rhyming phrases. A rhyme within the strict sense can also be known as an ideal rhyme. Examples are sight and flight, deign and achieve, insanity and disappointment, love and dove.
Good rhymes could be categorised by the placement of the ultimate careworn syllable.
- single, also called masculine: a rhyme through which the stress is on the ultimate syllable of the phrases (rhyme, chic)
- double, also called female: a rhyme through which the stress is on the penultimate (second from final) syllable of the phrases (choosy, tough)
- dactylic: a rhyme through which the stress is on the antepenultimate (third from final) syllable (amorous, glamorous)
Female and dactylic rhymes can also be realized as compound (or mosaic) rhymes (poet, realize it).
Within the common sense, common rhyme can refer to numerous sorts of phonetic similarity between phrases, and to the usage of such similar-sounding phrases in organizing verse. Rhymes on this common sense are categorised in line with the diploma and method of the phonetic similarity:
- syllabic: a rhyme through which the final syllable of every phrase sounds the identical however doesn’t essentially include careworn vowels. (cleaver, silver, or pitter, patter; the ultimate syllable of the phrases bottle and fiddle is /l/, a liquid consonant.)
- imperfect (or close to): a rhyme between a careworn and an unstressed syllable. (wing, caring)
- weak (or unaccented): a rhyme between two units of a number of unstressed syllables. (hammer, carpenter)
- semirhyme: a rhyme with an additional syllable on one phrase. (bend, ending)
- compelled (or indirect): a rhyme with an imperfect match in sound. (inexperienced, fiend; one, thumb)
- assonance: matching vowels. (shake, hate) Assonance is typically known as slant rhymes, together with consonance.
- consonance: matching consonants. (rabies, robbers)
- half rhyme (or slant rhyme): matching closing consonants. (hand , lend)
- pararhyme: all consonants match. (tick, tock)
- alliteration (or head rhyme): matching preliminary consonants. (ship, short)
Similar rhymes are thought-about lower than excellent in English poetry; however are valued extra extremely in different literatures reminiscent of, for instance, rime riche in French poetry.
Although homophones and homonyms fulfill the primary situation for rhyming—that’s, that the careworn vowel sound is identical—they don’t fulfill the second: that the previous consonant be totally different. As said above, in an ideal rhyme the final careworn vowel and all following sounds are similar in each phrases.
If the sound previous the careworn vowel can also be similar, the rhyme is typically thought-about to be inferior and never an ideal rhyme in spite of everything. An instance of such a super-rhyme or “greater than excellent rhyme” is the similar rhyme, through which not solely the vowels but in addition the onsets of the rhyming syllables are similar, as in gun and begun. Punning rhymes, reminiscent of naked and bear are additionally similar rhymes. The rhyme could lengthen even farther again than the final careworn vowel. If it extends all the way in which to the start of the road, in order that there are two strains that sound very related or similar, it’s known as a holorhyme (“For I scream/For ice cream”).
In poetics these can be thought-about id, somewhat than rhyme.
Eye rhymes or sight rhymes or spelling rhymes discuss with similarity in spelling however not in sound the place the ultimate sounds are spelled identically however pronounced in a different way. Examples in English are cough, bough, and love, transfer.
Some early written poetry seems to include these, however in lots of circumstances the phrases used rhymed on the time of writing, and subsequent modifications in pronunciation have meant that the rhyme is now misplaced.
Thoughts rhyme is a type of substitution rhyme just like rhyming slang, however it’s much less typically codified and is “heard” solely when generated by a particular verse context. As an example, “this sugar is neat / and tastes so bitter.” If a reader or listener thinks of the phrase “candy” as an alternative of “bitter,” a thoughts rhyme has occurred.
Classification by place
Rhymes could also be categorised in line with their place within the verse:
- Tail rhyme (additionally known as finish rhyme or rime couée) is a rhyme within the closing syllable(s) of a verse (the most typical type).
- Inside rhyme happens when a phrase or phrase within the inside of a line rhymes with a phrase or phrase on the finish of a line, or inside a distinct line.
- Off-centered rhyme is a kind of inside rhyme occurring in sudden locations in a given line. That is typically known as a misplaced-rhyme scheme or a spoken phrase rhyme type.
- Holorime, talked about above, happens when two complete strains have the identical sound.
- Damaged rhyme is a kind of enjambement producing a rhyme by dividing a phrase on the line break of a poem to make a rhyme with the tip phrase of one other line.
- Cross rhyme matches a sound or sounds on the finish of a line with the identical sound or sounds in the course of the next (or previous) line.
A rhyme scheme is the sample of rhyming strains in a poem.
In lots of languages, together with trendy European languages and Arabic, poets use rhyme in set patterns as a structural component for particular poetic types, reminiscent of ballads, sonnets and rhyming couplets. Some rhyming schemes have change into related to a particular language, tradition or interval, whereas different rhyming schemes have achieved use throughout languages, cultures or time durations. Nonetheless, the usage of structural rhyme will not be common even inside the European custom. A lot trendy poetry avoids conventional rhyme schemes.
The earliest surviving proof of rhyming is the Chinese language Shi Jing (ca. tenth century BCE). Rhyme can also be often used within the Bible. Classical Greek and Latin poetry didn’t often rhyme, however rhyme was used very often. As an example, Catullus consists of partial rhymes within the poem Cui dono lepidum novum libellum. The traditional Greeks knew rhyme, and rhymes in The Wasps by Aristophanes are famous by a translator.
Rhyme is central to classical Arabic poetry tracing again to its sixth century pre-Islamic roots. In keeping with some archaic sources, Irish literature launched the rhyme to Early Medieval Europe, however that may be a disputed declare. Within the seventh century, the Irish had introduced the artwork of rhyming verses to a excessive pitch of perfection. The leonine verse is notable for introducing rhyme into Excessive Medieval literature within the twelfth century.
Rhyme entered European poetry within the Excessive Center Ages, partly underneath the affect of the Arabic language in Al Andalus (trendy Spain). Arabic language poets used rhyme extensively from the primary improvement of literary Arabic within the sixth century, as of their lengthy, rhyming qasidas.
Since dialects differ and languages change over time, strains that rhyme in a given register or period could not rhyme in one other, and it will not be clear whether or not one ought to pronounce the phrases in order that they rhyme. An instance is that this couplet from Handel’s Judas Maccabaeus:
- Rejoice, O Judah, and in songs divine
- With cherubim and seraphim harmonious be a part of.
Rhyme in numerous languages
Rhymes had been extensively unfold within the Arabian peninsula across the sixth century, in letters, poems and songs, in addition to lengthy, rhyming qasidas. As well as, the Quran makes use of a type of rhymed prose named saj’.
Rhyming within the Celtic Languages takes a drastically totally different course from most different Western rhyming schemes regardless of robust contact with the Romance and English patterns. Even at present, regardless of intensive interplay with English and French tradition, Celtic rhyme continues to exhibit native traits. Brian Ó Cuív units out the foundations of rhyme in Irish poetry of the classical interval: the final careworn vowel and any subsequent lengthy vowels have to be similar to ensure that two phrases to rhyme. Consonants are grouped into six lessons for the aim of rhyme: they needn’t be similar, however should belong to the identical class. Thus ‘b’ and ‘d’ can rhyme (each being ‘voiced plosives’), as can ‘bh’ and ‘l’ (that are each ‘voiced continuants’) however ‘l’, a ‘voiced continuant’, can’t rhyme with ‘ph’, a ‘unvoiced continuant’. Moreover, “for excellent rhyme a palatalized consonant could also be balanced solely by a palatalized consonant and a velarized consonant by a velarized one.” Within the post-Classical interval, these guidelines fell into desuetude, and in standard verse easy assonance usually suffices, as could be seen in an instance of Irish Gaelic rhyme from the normal music Bríd Óg Ní Mháille:
Right here the vowels are the identical, however the consonants, though each palatalized, don’t fall into the identical class within the bardic rhyming scheme.
Moreover the vowel/consonant side of rhyming, Chinese language rhymes usually embrace tone high quality (that’s, tonal contour) as an integral linguistic consider figuring out rhyme.
Use of rhyme in Classical Chinese language poetry usually however not at all times seems within the type of paired couplets, with end-rhyming within the closing syllable of every couplet.
One other essential side of rhyme in regard to Chinese language language research is the examine or reconstruction of previous sorts of Chinese language, reminiscent of Center Chinese language.
Outdated English poetry is generally alliterative verse. One of many earliest rhyming poems in English is The Rhyming Poem.
As stress is essential in English, lexical stress is among the elements that impacts the similarity of sounds for the notion of rhyme. Good rhyme could be outlined because the case when two phrases rhyme if their closing careworn vowel and all following sounds are similar.
Some phrases in English, reminiscent of “orange” and “silver”, are generally considered having no rhyme. Though a intelligent author can get round this (for instance, by obliquely rhyming “orange” with mixtures of phrases like “door hinge” or with lesser-known phrases like “Blorenge” – a hill in Wales – or the surname Gorringe), it’s typically simpler to maneuver the phrase out of rhyming place or change it with a synonym (“orange” might change into “amber”, whereas “silver” might change into a mix of “brilliant and argent”). A talented orator would possibly have the ability to tweak the pronunciation of sure phrases to facilitate a stronger rhyme (for instance, announcing ‘orange’ as ‘oringe’ to rhyme with ‘door hinge’)
One view of rhyme in English is from John Milton’s preface to Paradise Misplaced:
The Measure is English Heroic Verse with out Rime, as that of Homer in Greek, and of Virgil in Latin; Rime being no vital Adjunct or true Decoration of Poem or good Verse, in longer Works particularly, however the Invention of a barbarous Age, to set off wretched matter and lame Meeter; grac’t certainly since by means of some well-known trendy Poets, carried away by Customized…
A extra tempered view is taken by W. H. Auden in The Dyer’s Hand:
Rhymes, meters, stanza types, and so forth., are like servants. If the grasp is truthful sufficient to win their affection and agency sufficient to command their respect, the result’s an orderly blissful family. If he’s too tyrannical, they provide discover; if he lacks authority, they change into slovenly, impertinent, drunk and dishonest.
Pressured or clumsy rhyme is usually a key ingredient of doggerel.
In French poetry, in contrast to in English, it is not uncommon to have similar rhymes, through which not solely the vowels of the ultimate syllables of the strains rhyme, however their onset consonants (“consonnes d’appui”) as nicely. To the ear of somebody accustomed to English verse, this usually seems like a really weak rhyme. For instance, an English excellent rhyme of homophones, flour and flower, would appear weak, whereas a French rhyme of homophones doigt (“finger”) and doit (“should”) or level (“level”) and level (“not”) will not be solely acceptable however fairly frequent.
Rhymes are typically categorised into the classes of “rime pauvre” (“poor rhyme”), “rime suffisante” (“ample rhyme”), “rime riche” (“wealthy rhyme”) and “rime richissime” (“very wealthy rhyme”), in line with the variety of rhyming sounds within the two phrases or within the elements of the 2 verses. For instance, to rhyme “tu” with “vu” can be a poor rhyme (the phrases have solely the vowel in frequent), to rhyme “pas” with “bras” a ample rhyme (with the vowel and the silent consonant in frequent), and “tante” with “attente” a wealthy rhyme (with the vowel, the onset consonant, and the coda consonant with its mute “e” in frequent). Authorities disagree, nonetheless, on precisely the place to put the boundaries between the classes.
Holorime is an excessive instance of rime richissime spanning a whole verse. Alphonse Allais was a notable exponent of holorime. Right here is an instance of a holorime couplet from Marc Monnier:
Gall, amant de la Reine, alla (tour magnanime)
Gallus, the Queen’s lover, went (a magnanimous gesture)
Classical French rhyme not solely differs from English rhyme in its totally different remedy of onset consonants. It additionally treats coda consonants in a particular approach.
French spelling consists of a number of closing letters which might be not pronounced, and that in lots of circumstances have by no means been pronounced. Such closing unpronounced letters proceed to have an effect on rhyme in line with the foundations of Classical French versification. They’re encountered in nearly all the pre-Twentieth-century French verse texts, however these rhyming guidelines are nearly by no means taken into consideration from the Twentieth century.
A very powerful “silent” letter is the “mute e”. In spoken French at present, closing “e” is, in some regional accents (in Paris for instance), omitted after consonants; however in Classical French prosody, it was thought-about an integral a part of the rhyme even when following the vowel. “Joue” might rhyme with “boue”, however not with “trou”. Rhyming phrases ending with this silent “e” had been mentioned to make up a “double rhyme”, whereas phrases not ending with this silent “e” made up a “single rhyme”. It was a precept of stanza-formation that single and double rhymes needed to alternate within the stanza. Nearly all Seventeenth-century French performs in verse alternate masculine and female Alexandrin couplets.
The now-silent closing consonants current a extra complicated case. They, too, had been historically an integral a part of the rhyme, such that “pont” rhymed with “vont” however not with “lengthy”; however spelling and pronunciation didn’t coincide precisely—”pont” additionally rhymed with “rond”. There are a couple of guidelines that govern most word-final consonants in archaic French pronunciation:
- The excellence between voiced and voiceless consonants is misplaced within the closing place. Due to this fact, “d” and “t” (each pronounced /t/) rhyme. So too with “c”, “g” and “q” (all /ok/), “b” and “p” (each /p/), and “s”, “x” and “z” (all /z/). Rhymes ending in /z/ are known as “plural rhymes” as a result of most plural nouns and adjectives finish in “s” or “x”.
- Nasal vowels rhyme whether or not spelled with “m” or “n” (e.g. “essaim” rhymes with “sain” however not with “saint”).
- If a phrase ends in a cease adopted by “s”, the cease is silent and ignored for functions of rhyming (e.g. “temps” rhymes with “dents”). Within the archaic orthography a few of these silent stops are omitted from the spelling as nicely (e.g. “dens” for “dents”).
As a result of German phonology options a wide selection of vowel sounds, sure imperfect rhymes are extensively admitted in German poetry. These embrace rhyming “e” with “ä” and “ö”, rhyming “i” with “ü”, rhyming “ei” with “eu” (spelled “äu” in some phrases) and rhyming an extended vowel with its quick counterpart.
Some examples of imperfect rhymes (all from Friedrich Schiller’s “An die Freude”):
- Deine Zauber binden wieder / Alle Menschen werden Brüder
- Freude trinken alle Wesen / Alle Guten, alle Bösen
- Einen Freund, geprüft im Tod; / und der Cherub steht vor Gott.
- See Homoioteleuton
Historic Greek poetry is strictly metrical. Rhyme is used, if in any respect, solely as an occasional rhetorical flourish.
The primary Greek to put in writing rhyming poetry was the fourteenth-century Cretan Stephanos Sachlikis. Rhyme is now a typical fixture of Greek poetry.
Historic Hebrew not often employed rhyme, e.g. in Exodus 29 35: ועשית לאהרן ולבניו כָּכה, ככל אשר צויתי אֹתָכה (the similar half in each rhyming phrases being / ‘axa/ ). Rhyme turned a everlasting – even compulsory – function of poetry in Hebrew language, across the 4th century CE. It’s discovered within the Jewish liturgical poetry written within the Byzantine empire period. This was realized by students solely not too long ago, due to the 1000’s of piyyuts which have been found within the Cairo Geniza. It’s assumed that the precept of rhyme was transferred from Hebrew liturgical poetry to the poetry of the Syriac Christianity (written in Aramaic), and thru this mediation launched into Latin poetry after which into all different languages of Europe.
In Latin rhetoric and poetry homeoteleuton and alliteration had been continuously used gadgets.
Tail rhyme was often used, as on this piece of poetry by Cicero:
O Fortunatam natam me consule Romam.
O lucky Rome, to be born with me consul
However tail rhyme was not used as a distinguished structural function of Latin poetry till it was launched underneath the affect of native vernacular traditions within the early Center Ages. That is the Latin hymn Dies Irae:
Dies irae, dies illa
The day of wrath, that day
Medieval poetry could combine Latin and vernacular languages. Mixing languages in verse or rhyming phrases in numerous languages is termed macaronic.
In Polish literature rhyme was used from the start. Unrhymed verse was by no means standard, though it was typically imitated from Latin. Homer’s, Virgil’s and even Milton’s epic poems had been furnished with rhymes by Polish translators. Due to paroxytonic accentuation in Polish, female rhymes at all times prevailed. Guidelines of Polish rhyme had been established in sixteenth century. Then solely female rhymes had been allowed in syllabic verse system. Along with introducing syllabo-accentual metres, masculine rhymes started to happen in Polish poetry. They had been hottest on the finish of nineteenth century. Probably the most frequent rhyme scheme in Outdated Polish (sixteenth – 18th centuries) was couplet AABBCCDD…, however Polish poets, having excellent information of Italian language and literature, experimented with different schemes, amongst others ottava rima (ABABABCC) and sonnet (ABBA ABBA CDC DCD or ABBA ABBA CDCD EE).
Wpłynąłem na suchego przestwór oceanu,
Throughout sea-meadows measureless I am going,
“Stepy akermańskie“, Sonety krymskie, strains 1-4
|—”The Ackerman Steppe”, Sonnets from the Crimea,
translated by Edna Worthley Underwood
The metre of Mickiewicz’s sonnet is the Polish alexandrine (tridecasyllable, in Polish “trzynastozgłoskowiec”): 13(7+6) and its rhymes are female: [anu] and [odzi].
Portuguese classifies rhymes within the following method:
- rima pobre (poor rhyme): rhyme between phrases of the identical grammatical class (e.g. noun with noun) or between quite common endings (-ão, -ar);
- rima rica (wealthy rhyme): rhyme between phrases of various grammatical lessons or with unusual endings;
- rima preciosa (treasured rhyme): rhyme between phrases with a distinct morphology, for instance estrela (star) with vê-la (to see her);
- rima esdrúxula (odd rhyme): rhyme between proparoxytonic phrases (instance: ânimo, “animus”, and unânimo, “unanimous”).
Rhyme was launched into Russian poetry within the 18th century. Folks poetry had typically been unrhymed, relying extra on dactylic line endings for impact. Two phrases ending in an accented vowel are solely thought-about to rhyme in the event that they share a previous consonant. Vowel pairs rhyme—although non-Russian audio system could not understand them as the identical sound. Consonant pairs rhyme if each are devoiced. As in French, formal poetry historically alternates between masculine and female rhymes.
Early 18th-century poetry demanded excellent rhymes that had been additionally grammatical rhymes—particularly that noun endings rhymed with noun endings, verb endings with verb endings, and so forth. Such rhymes counting on morphological endings change into a lot rarer in trendy Russian poetry, and better use is manufactured from approximate rhymes.
Patterns of wealthy rhyme (prāsa) play a task in trendy Sanskrit poetry, however solely to a minor extent in historic Sanskrit texts. They’re categorised in line with their place inside the pada (metrical foot): ādiprāsa (first syllable), dvitīyākṣara prāsa (second syllable), antyaprāsa (closing syllable) and so forth.
Spanish primarily differentiates two forms of rhymes:
- rima consonante (consonant rhyme): These phrases of the identical stress with similar endings, matching consonants and vowels, for instance robo (theft) and lobo (wolf), legua (league) and yegua (mare) or canción (music) and montón (pile).
- rima asonante (assonant rhyme): these phrases of the identical stress that solely the vowels similar on the finish, for instance zapato (shoe) and brazo (arm), ave (hen) and ame (would love), reloj (watch) and feroz (fierce), puerta (door) and ruleta (roulette).
Spanish rhyme can also be categorised by stress kind since differing types can’t rhyme with one another:
- rima llana (airplane rhyme): the rhyming phrases are unaccented, for instance cama (mattress) and rama (department), pereza (lazyness) and moneda (coin) or espejo (mirror) and pienso (I believe).
- rima grave (paroxytone rhyme): The rhyming phrases are accented on the final syllable, for instance: cartón (cardboard) and limón (lemon), jerez (sherry) and revés (backwards). Grave phrases that finish in a single similar vowel could be asonante rhymes for instance compró (he/she purchased) and llevó (he/she carried), tendré (I’ll have) and pediré (I’ll ask), perdí (I misplaced) and medí (I measured).
- rima esdrújula (odd rhyme): The rhyming phrases are accented on the antepenult. For instance mácula (stain) and báscula (scale), estrépito (noise) and intrépido (fearless), rápido (quick) and pálido (pallid).
There are some distinctive rhyming schemes in Dravidian languages like Tamil. Particularly, the rhyme known as etukai (anaphora) happens on the second consonant of every line.
The opposite rhyme and associated patterns are known as mōnai (alliteration), toṭai (epiphora) and iraṭṭai kiḷavi (parallelism).
Some classical Tamil poetry types, reminiscent of veṇpā, have inflexible grammars for rhyme to the purpose that they may very well be expressed as a context-free grammar.
Rhymes are utilized in Vietnamese to provide similes. The next is an instance of a Rhyming Simile:
Nghèo như con mèo
/ŋɛu ɲɯ kɔn mɛu/
“Poor as a cat”
Examine the above Vietnamese instance, which is a rhyming simile, to the English phrase “(as) poor as a church mouse”, which is barely a semantic simile.
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- Harper, Douglas (2000–2012). “On-line Etymology Dictionary”. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
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- “Outdated Testomony survey: the message, type, and background of the Outdated Testomony pg. 236”
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- “Bernard of Morlaix – METRE AND RHYME”. prosentient.com.au. Archived from the unique on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-08-25.
- Aristophanes; Slavitt, D.R.; Bovie, S.P. (1999). Aristophanes, 2: Wasps, Lysistrata, Frogs, The Sexual Congress. College of Pennsylvania Press, Included. p. 4. ISBN 9780812216844. Retrieved 2015-08-25.
- “Article about early Irish literature by Prof. Douglas Hyde in The Catholic Encyclopedia”
- Menocal, Maria Rosa (2003). The Arabic Function in Medieval Literary Historical past. College of Pennsylvania. p. 88. ISBN 0-8122-1324-6.
- Sperl, Stefan, ed. (1996). Qasida poetry in Islamic Asia and Africa. Brill. p. 49. ISBN 978-90-04-10387-0.
- Kelly, Thomas Forest (2011). Early Music: A Very Brief Introduction, p.83. ISBN 978-0-19-973076-6.
- Ó Cuív, Brian (1967). ‘The Phonetic Foundation of Classical Trendy Irish Rhyme’. Ériu 20, pp. 96-97
- See: Benjamin Harshav (Hrushovski)’s article on Hebrew Prosody within the Encyclopedia Judaica
- Wiktor Jarosław Darasz, Mały przewodnik po wierszu polskim, Kraków 2003, p. 19 (in Polish).
- Adam Mickiewicz’s Sonnets from the Crimea at Sonnet Central
- Wachtel, Michael (2006). The Cambridge Introduction to Russian Poetry. Cambridge: Cambridge College Press. ISBN 9780511206986.
- See p. 98 in Thuy Nga Nguyen and Ghil’advert Zuckermann (2012), “Silly as a Coin: Which means and Rhyming Similes in Vietnamese”, Worldwide Journal of Language Research 6 (4), pp. 97-118.
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