The Economics of Dialysis in India

Results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study
February 22, 2021 0 Comments

Indian J Nephrol. 2009 Jan; 19(1): 1–4.

Persistent kidney illness is a worldwide public well being downside, a social calamity and an financial disaster. Within the yr 2000, in america (US) alone, about 30 million individuals had been identified with power kidney illness (CKD). It’s estimated that by 2010, six million worldwide would wish renal substitute remedy (RRT) costing 28 billion greenback.[1]

Burden of CKD in India

The precise burden of CKD in India nonetheless stays undefined with solely restricted knowledge from the three population-based research addressing this concern.[2–4]

It’s hoped that the CKD registry, not too long ago established by the Indian Society of Nephrology, might present helpful epidemiological knowledge sooner or later. Within the prevention research achieved in Chennai, the prevalence on the neighborhood degree is 8600 per million inhabitants (pmp) within the research group and 13900 pmp within the management group. The second research based mostly in Delhi[3] revealed a prevalence of CKD (serum creatinine greater than 1.8 mg %) at 7852 pmp. The third research from Bhopal revealed an incidence of 151 pmp affected by finish stage renal illness (ESRD). Do we now have the sources and ability to deal with this ever rising inhabitants of ESRD in India?

Financial Situation in India

As per the December 2007 index declared by Rajya Sabha, the per capita earnings in India is Rs 20734 each year. The full inhabitants is 113 crore of which 26% stay under the poverty line (BPL) the place the each day incomes is Rs 10, compared, the worldwide customary BPL is US $1 per day i.e. Rs 45 per day. By this parameter, in India, 70% of the inhabitants can be BPL. The federal government spends barely US $8 per capita on well being with priorities extra on infectious illness, sanitation, vitamin and many others[4] (MK Mani et al.)

Services for RRT in India

Within the absence of any accessible knowledge, Mumbai Kidney Basis (MKF) carried out an information assortment train with the assistance of trade, sources, private dialogue with nephrologists and telephonic affirmation of dialysis facilities.

India has near 950 nephrologists (not all ISN members) all around the nation. There are 700 dialysis facilities with a complete of 4000 dialysis machines, predominantly within the personal sector and primarily concentrated in cities, particularly metros. There are round 20,000 sufferers present process dialysis at these facilities [Tables and ]. There are round 170 authorities acknowledged transplant facilities in India, performing round 3500 transplants yearly. The sufferers on CAPD quantity lower than 5000. Clearly, the alternatives and services for RRT are predominantly targeted on upkeep hemodialysis and are woefully insufficient.

Desk 1

Zone No of Dialysis facilities No. of Dialysis Machines No. of dialysis per 30 days Value of dialysis per session No. of transplant facilities No. of transplant per 30 days
North 229 1106 50,560 1250 26 85
South 306 1453 85,440 1100 88 117
East 108 430 27,050 1350 15 25
West 175 1000 90,000 1000 37 71

Desk 2

Metropolis No of Dialysis facilities No. of Dialysis Machines No. of dialysis per 30 days Value of dialysis per session No. of transplant facilities No. of transplant per 30 days
Delhi 79 490 28,500 1600 10 35
Mumbai 112 600 40,000 750 20 16
Chennai 44 146 10,220 1200 17 34
Calcutta 36 250 20,000 1100 10 20

Value of RRT in India

The MKF knowledge additionally gave insights into the costing of ESRD administration [].

Desk 3

Zone and metropolis clever value of dialysis in India

Zone Value of dialysis (Rs) per session
North 1250
South 1100
East 1350
West 1000
Delhi 1600
Mumbai 750
Chennai 1200
Calcutta 1100

The price of every hemodialysis (HD) session in India varies from Rs 150 in authorities hospitals to Rs 2000 in some company hospitals. The month-to-month value of HD in most personal hospitals common Rs 12000 and the yearly value of dialysis is Rs 1, 40000, equal of $3000, which is in sharp distinction to an annual value of $60,000 within the US and UK. So we’re the most cost effective on this planet and but greater than 90% of Indians can not afford it.

The price of an AV fistula building is Rs 6000 to Rs 20000 from a authorities hospital to various grades of personal hospitals. The typical value of erythropoietin per 30 days is Rs 4000 (bio comparable) to Rs 10000 (the pioneer model).

The typical value of kidney transplant varies from Rs 50000 in a authorities set-up to Rs 300000 in a median personal hospital. Additionally the yearly upkeep value publish transplant for medication quantities to Rs 12 0000 per yr or Rs 10000 per 30 days.

Precise Value Break-up of Dialysis in a Non-public arrange

MKF carried out a survey of precise costing of dialysis in few personal hospitals in several cities of India [] and requested for his or her operating value of upkeep of hemodialysis in facilities which have a power dialysis program and we got here up with attention-grabbing findings.

Desk 4

Precise costing of Dialysis

Consumables Rs 350
Electrical energy Rs 50
Water, phone, Insurance coverage Rs10
Annual Upkeep – dialysis machine RO plant, premises Rs 20
Repairs & put on & tear Rs 20
Depreciation Rs 100
Honorarium to nephrologist Rs 100-200
Workers Wage Rs 100-200
Whole Rs 750-950

  1. the associated fee differed from a nephrologist owned facility versus a company hospital

  2. the administration significantly exaggerated the associated fee

  3. Even in giant company hospitals the recurrent value dialysis labored out to be between Rs 700-900 as proven within the .

The typical value to the affected person throughout the nation works out to be Rs 1100, which actually is, past the attain of greater than 90% of India. To extend the attain of dialysis, carry it out of the company hospital arrange and make it cheaper within the smaller free standing items or nephrologists-owned items.

Idea of Nephrologist Owned Unit

Is it value efficient? The reply is sure! If you don’t thoughts the travails of operating a middle. One may both personal the arrange or take it on lease and pay hire. It could possibly be a day care centre hooked up to your consulting room, or a full fledged small hospital with indoor services.

By my very own expertise, the price of a single dialysis session to the nephrologist involves lower than 600 if we make bulk purchases. Laboratory services or outsourcing can fetch further earnings. Sale of EPO after acquiring a pharmacy license is straightforward and profitable and may simply subsidize the price of dialysis.

Our Expertise in Mumbai

In the event you undergo the desk, you’ll understand that Mumbai has the excellence of providing the most cost effective dialysis in India at a median value of Rs 700 per session largely due to the presence of two distinct fashions which have been in existence since a few years [].

Desk 5

Costing of our 700 dialysis achieved final month in a nephrologist-owned unit

Objects Month-to-month Bills (Rs.) Per dialysis (Rs.)
Formalin 1470 2
Hypochloride 630 1
Hydrogen Peroxide 480 0.7
Acitic Acid 1110 1.6
Dialyzers (118 no) 60,000 86
Bicarb Cans (303 can) 45,000 64
Tubing Set (32 units) 4,160 6
A-V.Fistula Needles (1400) 29,400 42
Regular saline (1 Liter 707 bottles 14,140 20
Ns 500 Ml 350 4,550 6.5
Gloves (Per day 2box × 26 Days) 9,256 13
Heparine (250 Vials Of 25000 Items) 7,000 10
Gauze (40packs) 10,080 14.4
Syringes (20ml 707) 5,567 8
Micropore Sticking Plaster 1,616 2.3
Neosporin Powder 2,418 3.5
IV Set (707 items) 5,656 8
Materials Whole bills 202533 289

Idea of Free Standing Unit

Additionally known as neighborhood dialysis centre or satellite tv for pc dialysis items, they basically supply solely dialysis facility with no admission facility. Thus, they’ll supply dialysis at an affordable worth by slicing down the overheads. It contains of a full fledged dialysis centre with 10-20 dialysis machines, remoted machines for Hepatitis B and C, RO plant and a resuscitation trolley with monitor and defibrillator. It additionally has skilled nurses, technicians and docs skilled in resuscitation of a critical affected person. The affected person is screened on the entry level and brought provided that he’s secure for OPD dialysis. Semi-acute issues are solved by telephonic session between the RMO and nephrologist. Throughout an occasional acute emergency, the RMO or the paramedics resuscitate and if want be switch to a hospital.

The nephrologist evaluations the affected person not less than as soon as in per week, if not each day. Such an idea of free standing unit already exists within the USA and Singapore. Primarily based on this mannequin, presently, Mumbai has 17 such free standing items out of a complete of 112 dialysis facilities within the metropolis.

Idea of Charitable Dialysis Unit

The second mannequin, which introduced down the price of dialysis additional down in Mumbai, was the involvement of philanthropists and establishing of non-governmental group (NGO) backed charitable dialysis items, both in a longtime hospital or as free standing items.

The involvement of the NGO may be within the following method.

  1. All the area and equipment belongs to the belief and so they present dialysis on a no revenue no loss foundation.

  2. The NGO is solely in donating machines and RO plant to an already current personal dialysis centre and in lieu of the donation will get a set variety of free dialysis to assist poor sufferers.

  3. The philanthropist is excited by donating dialysis machine and desires the unit to be named after him or will get into the advisory board of the dialysis unit.

  4. The NGO enters right into a public-private partnership with the federal government which gives area for the unit in a authorities hospital and the NGO runs the charitable dialysis unit.

Different areas through which NGOs or philanthropists work in dialysis subject are:

  1. Bulk buy of medicines particularly injection Erythropoietin and offering them at an especially sponsored worth to dialysis sufferers.

  2. Bulk buy of dialyzers, tubings and different disposable gadgets used for dialysis and promoting them to sufferers at sponsored charges.

  3. Providing decide up and drop providers to dialysis sufferers.

  4. Providing free month-to-month rations to poor CKD sufferers.

  5. Holding blood donation camps for offering blood to dialysis sufferers.

Because of selling these two ideas, Mumbai has 112 dialysis facilities, of which 17 are free standing items. Of the 600 dialysis machines which Mumbai has, 150 are in charitable items. In Mumbai, there are about 5000 dialysis sufferers of which 1250 are taking dialysis at lower than Rs 350 per dialysis and the typical worth of dialysis is Rs 700 – 750 per session, which is the most cost effective within the nation (Nationwide common value is Rs 1100). Additional extra, some sufferers pay lower than Rs 100 per dialysis.

Options for Growing the Outreach of Dialysis throughout India

In abstract what may be achieved to make dialysis extra inexpensive?

The Mumbai mannequin can be utilized for example to enhance the provision in addition to affordability of dialysis remedy all around the nation. This may be achieved within the following method:

  1. Construct center degree value efficient nephrologist-owned dialysis items costing Rs 800 per session as dialysis value.

  2. Encourage free standing items or satellite tv for pc dialysis items

  3. Contain philanthropists to undertake sufferers and donate machines. There isn’t a dearth of such individuals wanting to assist for trigger.

  4. Encourage the govt.. to lend area for personal public partnership in a govt. hospital with NGO participation.

  5. Foyer with the govt.. to subsidize or make dialysis tools and disposables tax free. If multiplexes can get pleasure from tax free holidays, dialysis items additionally deserve some assist from the federal government. Additionally, let the electrical energy utilized by such items be charged at non-commercial charges.

  6. Purchase low cost labor by coaching clever, sensible, non-graduates to turn out to be dialysis technicians, thereby bringing down the labor value. ISN can begin such programs.

  7. ISN ought to again its nephrologists for each medico authorized case arising out of there sponsored dialysis items. This may be achieved by laying minimal customary of care standards which the items want to stick to

Thus one may be cynical and say there are two choices – let sufferers succumb to their sickness as Indians can not afford RRT or undertake the Mumbai mannequin of offering RRT at extremely sponsored charges.


Supply of Help: Nil

Battle of Curiosity: None declared.


1. US Renal knowledge system. USRDS 2000 Annual Information Report: Atlas of Finish Stage Renal illness in america. Bethesda, MD: Nationwide institutes of well being, nationwide institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney Ailments; 2000. [Google Scholar]
2. Mani MK. Expertise with a program for prevention of power renal failure in India. Kidney Int. 2005;67:75–8. (Suppl) [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
3. Agarwal SK, Sprint SC, Irshad M, Raju S, Singh R, Pandey RM. Prevalence of power renal failure in adults in Delhi, India. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:1638–42. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
4. Modi GK, Jha V. The incidence of finish stage renal illness in India, a inhabitants based mostly research. Kidney Int. 2006;70:2131–3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

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